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NATIONAL NCHRP SYNTHESIS 342 COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Chip Seal Best Practices A Synthesis of Highway Practice

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TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 2005 (Membership as of February 2005) OFFICERS Chair: Joseph H. Boardman, Commissioner, New York State DOT Vice Chair: Michael D. Meyer, Professor, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology Executive Director: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS MICHAEL W. BEHRENS, Executive Director, Texas DOT LARRY L. BROWN, SR., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT DEBORAH H. BUTLER, Vice President, Customer Service, Norfolk Southern Corporation and Subsidiaries, Atlanta, GA ANNE P. CANBY, President, Surface Transportation Policy Project, Washington, DC JOHN L. CRAIG, Director, Nebraska Department of Roads DOUGLAS G. DUNCAN, President and CEO, FedEx Freight, Memphis, TN NICHOLAS J. GARBER, Professor of Civil Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville ANGELA GITTENS, Consultant, Miami, FL GENEVIEVE GIULIANO, Director, Metrans Transportation Center, and Professor, School of Policy, Planning, and Development, USC, Los Angeles BERNARD S. GROSECLOSE, JR., President and CEO, South Carolina State Ports Authority SUSAN HANSON, Landry University Professor of Geography, Graduate School of Geography, Clark University JAMES R. HERTWIG, President, CSX Intermodal, Jacksonville, FL GLORIA J. JEFF, Director, Michigan DOT ADIB K. KANAFANI, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley HERBERT S. LEVINSON, Principal, Herbert S. Levinson Transportation Consultant, New Haven, CT SUE MCNEIL, Director and Professor, Urban Transportation Center, University of Illinois, Chicago MICHAEL MORRIS, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments CAROL A. MURRAY, Commissioner, New Hampshire DOT JOHN E. NJORD, Executive Director, Utah DOT PHILIP A. SHUCET, Commissioner, Virginia DOT MICHAEL S. TOWNES, President and CEO, Hampton Roads Transit, Hampton, VA C. MICHAEL WALTON, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin LINDA S. WATSON, Executive Director, LYNX--Central Florida Regional Transportation Authority MARION C. BLAKEY, Federal Aviation Administrator, U.S.DOT (ex officio) SAMUEL G. BONASSO, Acting Administrator, Research and Special Programs Administration, U.S.DOT (ex officio) REBECCA M. BREWSTER, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA (ex officio) GEORGE BUGLIARELLO, Chancellor, Polytechnic University, and Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering (ex officio) THOMAS H. COLLINS (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard (ex officio) JENNIFER L. DORN, Federal Transit Administrator, U.S.DOT (ex officio) JAMES J. EBERHARDT, Chief Scientist, Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies, U.S. Department of Energy (ex officio) EDWARD R. HAMBERGER, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads (ex officio) JOHN C. HORSLEY, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (ex officio) ROBERT D. JAMISON, Acting Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT (ex officio) EDWARD JOHNSON, Director, Applied Science Directorate, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (ex officio) RICK KOWALEWSKI, Deputy Director, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, U.S.DOT (ex officio) WILLIAM W. MILLAR, President, American Public Transportation Association (ex officio) MARY E. PETERS, Federal Highway Administrator, U.S.DOT (ex officio) SUZANNE RUDZINSKI, Director, Transportation and Regional Programs, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (ex officio) JEFFREY W. RUNGE, National Highway Traffic Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT (ex officio) ANNETTE M. SANDBERG, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT (ex officio) WILLIAM G. SCHUBERT, Maritime Administrator, U.S.DOT (ex officio) JEFFREY N. SHANE, Under Secretary for Policy, U.S.DOT (ex officio) CARL A. STROCK (Maj. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (ex officio) NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Transportation Research Board Executive Committee Subcommittee for NCHRP JOSEPH H. BOARDMAN, New York State DOT (Chair) MARY E. PETERS, Federal Highway Administration JOHN C. HORSLEY, American Association of State Highway ROBERT E. SKINNER, JR., Transportation Research Board and Transportation Officials MICHAEL S. TOWNES, Hampton Roads Transit, Hampton, VA MICHAEL D. MEYER, Georgia Institute of Technology C. MICHAEL WALTON, University of Texas, Austin

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM NCHRP SYNTHESIS 342 Chip Seal Best Practices A Synthesis of Highway Practice CONSULTANTS DOUGLAS GRANSBERG and DAVID M.B. JAMES University of Oklahoma TOPIC PANEL LITA DAVIS, County of San Diego Department of Public Works BART DESAI, California Department of Transportation LARRY GALEHOUSE, Michigan State University JOE S. GRAFF, Texas Department of Transportation MARK ISHEE, Ergon Asphalt and Emulsions, Inc. FRANK LISLE, Transportation Research Board BILL O'LEARY, Prime Materials and Supply STEVE VARNEDOE, North Carolina Department of Transportation DON WISE, Pennsylvania Department of Transportation STEVE MUELLER, Federal Highway Administration (Liaison) S UBJECT A REAS Materials and Construction and Maintenance Research Sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in Cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2005 www.TRB.org

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM NCHRP SYNTHESIS 342 Systematic, well-designed research provides the most effective Project 20-5 FY 2003 (Topic 35-02) approach to the solution of many problems facing highway ISSN 0547-5570 administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local ISBN 0-309-09744-4 interest and can best be studied by highway departments Library of Congress Control No. 2005920332 individually or in cooperation with their state universities and Transportation Research Board others. However, the accelerating growth of highway transportation develops increasingly complex problems of wide interest to Price $18.00 highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. In recognition of these needs, the highway administrators of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials initiated in 1962 an objective national highway research NOTICE program employing modern scientific techniques. This program is The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National supported on a continuing basis by funds from participating Cooperative Highway Research Program conducted by the Transportation member states of the Association and it receives the full cooperation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National and support of the Federal Highway Administration, United States Research Council. Such approval reflects the Governing Board's judgment that Department of Transportation. the program concerned is of national importance and appropriate with respect The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies to both the purposes and resources of the National Research Council. was requested by the Association to administer the research The members of the technical committee selected to monitor this project and program because of the Board's recognized objectivity and to review this report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due consideration for the balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. understanding of modern research practices. The Board is uniquely The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied are those of the research suited for this purpose as it maintains an extensive committee agency that performed the research, and, while they have been accepted as structure from which authorities on any highway transportation appropriate by the technical committee, they are not necessarily those of the subject may be drawn; it possesses avenues of communications and Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, the American cooperation with federal, state, and local governmental agencies, Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, or the Federal universities, and industry; its relationship to the National Research Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. Council is an insurance of objectivity; it maintains a full-time Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical research correlation staff of specialists in highway transportation committee according to procedures established and monitored by the matters to bring the findings of research directly to those who are in Transportation Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing a position to use them. Board of the National Research Council. The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified by chief administrators of the highway and transportation departments and by committees of AASHTO. Each year, specific areas of research needs to be included in the program are proposed to the National Research Council and the Board by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. Research projects to fulfill these needs are defined by the Board, and qualified research agencies are selected from those that have submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Research Council and the Transportation Research Board. The needs for highway research are many, and the National Cooperative Highway Research Program can make significant contributions to the solution of highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement rather than to substitute for or duplicate other highway research programs. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office NOTE: The Transportation Research Board of the National Acade- 500 Fifth Street, NW mies, the National Research Council, the Federal Highway Adminis- Washington, DC 20001 tration, the American Association of State Highway and Transporta- tion Officials, and the individual states participating in the National and can be ordered through the Internet at: Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore solely because they are considered essential to the object of this report. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished schol- ars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and techni- cal matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Acad- emy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achieve- ments of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Acad- emy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both the Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is a division of the National Research Council, which serves the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering. The Board's mission is to promote innovation and progress in transportation through research. In an objective and interdisciplinary setting, the Board facilitates the sharing of information on transportation practice and policy by researchers and practitioners; stimulates research and offers research management services that promote technical excellence; provides expert advice on transportation policy and programs; and disseminates research results broadly and encourages their implementation. The Board's varied activities annually engage more than 5,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

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NCHRP COMMITTEE FOR PROJECT 20-5 COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM STAFF ROBERT J. REILLY, Director, Cooperative Research Programs CHAIR CRAWFORD F. JENCKS, Manager, NCHRP GARY D. TAYLOR, CTE Engineers EILEEN P. DELANEY, Director of Publications MEMBERS NCHRP SYNTHESIS STAFF THOMAS R. BOHUSLAV, Texas DOT STEPHEN R. GODWIN, Director for Studies and Information Services DONN E. HANCHER, University of Kentucky JON WILLIAMS, Manager, Synthesis Studies DWIGHT HORNE, Federal Highway Administration DONNA L. VLASAK, Senior Program Officer YSELA LLORT, Florida DOT DON TIPPMAN, Editor WESLEY S.C. LUM, California DOT CHERYL KEITH, Senior Secretary JAMES W. MARCH, Federal Highway Administration JOHN M. MASON, JR., Pennsylvania State University LARRY VELASQUEZ, New Mexico DOT PAUL T. WELLS, New York State DOT FHWA LIAISON WILLIAM ZACCAGNINO TRB LIAISON MARK R. NORMAN ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors would like to acknowledge not only the NCHRP panel Dr. Ron Ayers of the University of Southern Queensland, who found that oversaw this study, but also the many respondents from the survey photographs and technical data on Australian chip seal practices. who went beyond just filling out the survey and furnishing case studies. Tim Klassen and Robert Chartier of Manitoba for assisting in trans- Special thanks are reserved for the following individuals who went lating French Canadian chip seal manuals and specifications and above and beyond the call of duty to furnish much of the technical detail furnishing photographs of Canadian practices. that is contained in this report: Gordon Hart of Transit New Zealand for submitting the complete New Zealand specifications. Dr. Brian Pidwerbeski from Fulton Hogan in New Zealand, who Tawan Songpiriyakij, a graduate student at the University of Okla- made both manuals and technical expertise available. homa, who developed many of the graphics that are contained in Chris Summers from the U.K. Highway Agency who obtained this report. photographs of the water retexturizing equipment and formed an ad hoc working group to develop the case study. It was gratifying to realize that this project created an international Ian Cossens from VicRoads (Australia) for submitting hard copies network of chip seal experts and laid the foundation for collaboration of their chip seal manuals. between the various nations in the years to come.

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FOREWORD Highway administrators, engineers, and researchers often face problems for which infor- By Staff mation already exists, either in documented form or as undocumented experience and prac- Transportation tice. This information may be fragmented, scattered, and unevaluated. As a consequence, Research Board full knowledge of what has been learned about a problem may not be brought to bear on its solution. Costly research findings may go unused, valuable experience may be overlooked, and due consideration may not be given to recommended practices for solving or alleviat- ing the problem. There is information on nearly every subject of concern to highway administrators and engineers. Much of it derives from research or from the work of practitioners faced with problems in their day-to-day work. To provide a systematic means for assembling and eval- uating such useful information and to make it available to the entire highway community, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials--through the mechanism of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program--authorized the Transportation Research Board to undertake a continuing study. This study, NCHRP Proj- ect 20-5, "Synthesis of Information Related to Highway Problems," searches out and syn- thesizes useful knowledge from all available sources and prepares concise, documented reports on specific topics. Reports from this endeavor constitute an NCHRP report series, Synthesis of Highway Practice. This synthesis series reports on current knowledge and practice, in a compact format, without the detailed directions usually found in handbooks or design manuals. Each report in the series provides a compendium of the best knowledge available on those measures found to be the most successful in resolving specific problems. PREFACE This synthesis report provides an overview of successful chip seal practices in the United States, Canada, and overseas. Although not meant to be an exhaustive study, it covers the spectrum of chip seal practice and presents, where possible, the state of the art, as reported in the literature and survey responses. The report presents ways to assist in the development and implementation of pavement preservation programs by identifying the benefits of using chip seal as part of a preventive maintenance program. Innovative and advanced chip seal programs from around the world were identified with respect to critical factors that can be incorporated by other transportation agencies. Approximately 40 best practices were iden- tified in the areas of chip seal design methods, contract administration, equipment practices, construction practices, and performance measures. The increased use of chip seals for main- tenance can be a successful, cost-effective way of using preventive maintenance to preserve both low-volume and higher-volume pavements. For this synthesis report of the Transportation Research Board, 92 survey responses were received from state departments of transportation; U.S. cities and counties; Canadian provinces, cities, and territories; Australian and New Zealand provinces; and other public agencies. In addition, a comprehensive review of the literature covering nearly 80 years of research was undertaken, and more than 120 articles on chip seals and preventive mainte- nance identified. Case studies that illustrate trends found in best practices, taken from those respondents who routinely achieve good results from their chip seal programs, are also pre- sented. In addition, two innovative and emerging technology cases that address areas of concern for the future implementation of chip seals are provided. A panel of experts in the subject area guided the work of organizing and evaluating the col- lected data and reviewed the final synthesis report. A consultant was engaged to collect and synthesize the information and to write the report. Both the consultant and the members of the oversight panel are acknowledged on the title page. This synthesis is an immediately useful document that records the practices that were acceptable within the limitations of the knowl- edge available at the time of its preparation. As progress in research and practice continues, new knowledge will be added to that now at hand.

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CONTENTS 1 SUMMARY 7 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Definition and History, 7 Chip Seals as a Tool for Preventive Maintenance, 7 10 CHAPTER TWO SUMMARY OF INFORMATION COLLECTED Scope of Research, 10 Chip Seal Survey, 10 Regional Context, 10 Chip Seal--Art or Science?, 11 Sound Engineering Principles, 12 Chip Seal Terminology, 12 13 CHAPTER THREE CHIP SEAL DESIGN Introduction, 13 Chip Seal Programming, 13 Chip Seal Design Methods, 13 Chip Seal Design Practices, 15 Chip Seal Design Conclusions and Best Practices, 19 20 CHAPTER FOUR CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION Introduction, 20 Contract Types, 20 Contract Management, 20 Risk and Warranties, 22 Contract Risk, 23 Warranties, 24 Contract Administration Conclusions and Best Practices, 25 26 CHAPTER FIVE MATERIAL SELECTION Introduction, 26 Aggregate Selection, 26 Binder Selection, 29 AggregateBinder Compatibility, 31 Geotextile- and Fiber-Reinforced Seals, 31 Material Selection Conclusions and Best Practices, 31 33 CHAPTER SIX EQUIPMENT PRACTICES Introduction, 33 Binder Distributor, 33 Aggregate (Chip) Spreader, 35 Rollers, 36 Sweeping Equipment, 37 Unique Equipment, 37 Equipment Conclusions and Best Practices, 39

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40 CHAPTER SEVEN CONSTRUCTION PRACTICES Introduction, 40 Weather, 40 Road Preparation, 41 Spraying Operations, 42 Aggregate Spreading, 44 Rolling Operations, 45 Sweeping and Brooming, 48 Traffic Control, 49 Construction Practices for High-Volume Traffic, 49 Quality Assurance and Quality Control, 50 Laboratory Design and Materials Testing, 51 Field Testing, 51 Construction Conclusions and Best Practices, 54 56 CHAPTER EIGHT CHIP SEAL PERFORMANCE MEASURES Introduction, 56 Engineering-Based Performance Indicators, 56 Qualitative Performance Indicators, 57 Performance Conclusions and Best Practices, 60 61 CHAPTER NINE BEST PRACTICE CASE STUDIES Introduction, 61 Common Characteristics of Excellent Chip Seal Programs, 61 Specific Data from Programs with Excellent Results, 62 Case Study Conclusions and Best Practices, 62 65 CHAPTER TEN CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH Conclusions, 65 Suggestions for Future Research, 65 67 REFERENCES 70 BIBLIOGRAPHY 71 GLOSSARY 74 APPENDIX A CHIP SEAL SYNTHESIS QUESTIONNAIRE 85 APPENDIX B SURVEY RESPONSES 101 APPENDIX C CHIP SEAL DESIGN DETAILS 110 APPENDIX D INNOVATIVE CHIP SEAL CASE STUDIES