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22 Keys to Success and Lessons Learned The plan is organized around three target groups identi- fied in the board goals: Customers, Employees, and Stake- Good communication and wide involvement are believed to holders. Under each target group, there are "outcomes to be have been crucial to the success of the strategic planning achieved," "management objectives," and "strategies." For process. In addition to involving agency personnel, the CEO example, under the Customer target group, there are two pri- believes that it was important to involve the whole community. mary outcomes to be achieved: DALLAS AREA RAPID TRANSIT Increase Effectiveness (optimize ridership) and Increase Efficiency (improve subsidy per passenger). Agency Description DART is a regional transportation authority that was created Under Increase Effectiveness, there are two management in 1983 to serve the Dallas metropolitan area. It operates objectives: more than 700 buses and 95 light-rail vehicles, and serves an area of 700 square miles and 2.1 million people. It also oper- Improve Customer Satisfaction and ates commuter rail service between Dallas and Ft. Worth in Manage System Growth. conjunction with the Ft. Worth Transportation Authority. Under Improve Customer Satisfaction, there are four strategies: Strategic Plan Document DART's strategic plan is a 1-page document that provides a Improve service reliability, framework for annual business planning, budgeting, and cap- Provide a customer friendly environment, ital programming (see Figure 2). It is considered to be a 5-year Provide a safe/secure service, and plan that is reviewed annually and updated as necessary. Provide effective customer communication. FIGURE 2 DART's strategic plan (Source: DART FY 2004 business plan).

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23 DART's strategic plan identifies what needs to be accom- Plan Development plished and is the basis for what is at the heart of DART's annual business planning process. The business plan defines Initially, management retreats were used in the strategic plan how management intends to achieve the initiatives outlined in development process. The agency's mission, vision, and board the strategic plan and provides DART's performance projec- goals drove the development process. More recently, the plan tions and commitments for the organization as a whole and is reviewed in a team format with representation from each for each of its strategic business units (bus, light-rail, com- department. It is then reviewed by management each Janu- muter rail, and paratransit modes). The plan includes 2-year ary, at the beginning of the annual business planning process. scorecards of key operating, financial, and quality measures, Factors considered in the review include and identifies the work program initiatives that are needed to achieve them. In addition, the plan includes the annual bud- get and a 20-year financial plan. An analysis of business results; The results of employee, customer, and climate surveys; Other examples of the scorecard concept are presented in External events (such as issues being considered by the Tables 17 and 18. Each scorecard includes 2 years of actual state legislature); and data, an estimate for the current fiscal year, and a projection Benchmark comparisons with other transit agencies and for the subsequent 3 fiscal years. private-sector companies. TABLE 17 DART SCORECARD OF KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS KPI Measure Goals FY01A FY02A FY03B FY03 Q3 FY04B FY05B Ridership Total ridership (millions) 95.7 93.8 96.2 94.8 95.3 96.5 Fixed route (millions) 60.7 58.7 61.2 60.2 60.2 61.4 Efficiency Subsidy per passenger $2.34 $2.76 $2.65 $2.81 $2.50 $2.55 Fixed-route subsidy per passenger $3.24 $3.93 $3.73 $3.74 $3.43 $3.48 Administrative ratio 11.5% 11.2% 11.7% 10.6% 9.1% 10.0% Service Quality On-time performance--bus 92.8% 92.8% 91.0% 92.4% 91.0% 91.0% On-time performance--LRT 95.2% 97.0% 97.0% 97.4% 97.0% 97.0% On-time performance--TRE 97.9% 97.2% 96.0% 97.5% 96.0% 96.0% Customer Satisfaction Complaints per 100,000 passengers 24.7 34.8 31.0 42.6 32.5 32.1 Managed Growth Sales tax for operations 59.6% 77.5% 75.4% 84.4% 76.1% 72.9% Notes: KPI = key performance indicators; LRT = light-rail transit; TRE = Trinity Railway Express. Source: DART FY 2004 business plan. TABLE 18 BUS SCORECARD--KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS Indicators FY01A FY02A FY03B FY03 Q3 FY04B FY05B Customer/Quality Indicators Fixed-route bus ridership (millions) 47.5 42.4 41.4 40.4 39.8 40.7 Charter ridership (millions) 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.3 Revenue miles (millions) 30.3 31.2 30.9 30.9 27.9 27.9 Passengers per mile 1.58 1.37 1.35 1.32 1.43 1.46 On-time performance 92.8% 92.8% 91.0% 92.4% 91.0% 91.0% Mean distance between roadcalls 3,783 3,827 4,200 4,124 4,200 4,200 Vehicle accidents per 100,000 miles (all service) 2.87 2.40 2.80 2.20 2.80 2.80 Avg. no. of operator unscheduled absences (days) 25.1 22.5 20.0 16.3 23.0 22.0 Financial/Efficiency Indicators Revenues (millions) $29.2 $27.2 $28.0 $25.6 $28.8 $29.1 Expenses--fully allocated (millions) $183.3 $205.1 $192.0 $191.3 $174.5 $178.3 Net subsidy (millions) $154.1 $177.9 $164.0 $165.7 $145.7 $149.1 Subsidy per passenger $3.22 $4.12 $3.92 $4.06 $3.63 $3.64 Cost per revenue mile $6.05 $6.57 $6.22 $6.20 $6.25 $6.39 Pay-to-platform ratio (hours) N/A N/A 1.29 1.29 1.28 1.28 Note: N/A = not available. Source: DART FY 2004 business plan.