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10 TABLE 1 PROVIDING WINTER MAINTENANCE (responses by agency) Contract Agency's with Contract with Own Improvement Private Government Agency Employees District Sector Agencies State/Province Alberta Transportation California DOT Connecticut DOT Idaho Transportation Department Illinois DOT Indiana DOT Manitoba Transportation and Government Services Maryland State Highway Administration Ministre des Transports du Qubec Minnesota DOT Missouri DOT Montana DOT Nebraska DOT Nevada DOT New Brunswick DOT Nova Scotia DOT Oregon DOT Saskatchewan Highways and Transportation Washington State DOT Municipality City of Edmonton City of Moncton City of Vancouver A common difficulty experienced by all respondents was the funds available for other maintenance activities. The base obtaining reliable snow and ice control costs. For ODOT, year is reestablished every 2 years. fleet and personnel costs are not easily combined into a sin- gle winter maintenance cost report. Another difficulty is the Information collected about costs per lane mile for winter inclusion of shop or repair costs in the overall winter opera- maintenance was sufficient only for summary comparison. tions cost. It is generally assumed that more shop and repair The numbers present a picture of dramatic contrast between costs are required for winter operations than any other main- rural and urban costs. Agencies operating primarily in rural tenance activities. regions are subject to much lower costs per mile than their urban counterparts. The average rural winter maintenance cost per lane mile for 2002/03 was $2,500. Figure 2 graphically BUDGETING AND PERFORMANCE MEASURES represents the cost per mile data provided by the responding agencies. Several agencies in the survey group provided descriptions of how budgeting for winter operations is accomplished. For The majority of the agencies use some form of electronic many agencies, costs are tracked at the district level. How- ever, Alberta Transportation tracks costs by roadway seg- maintenance management system. Only 50% of the agencies ment in the management of their contract forces. The metric tie the costs and budgets associated with maintenance to spe- used by most of the responding agencies for tracking is an cific roadway segments, and only Edmonton and Moncton activity code, although lane miles, salt usage, and snowplow responded that GIS have been incorporated for snow and ice hours were also identified as cost-tracking methods. Past control budgeting and cost tracking. expenditures are most frequently used for determining budget amounts. Specific historical methods included running 5- and Four agencies, Edmonton, Idaho, Saskatchewan, and Wash- 10-year averages. Maryland sets their snow and ice control ington State, noted that they had documented benefits result- budget at a mild-to-average winter level, assuming that over- ing from winter maintenance activities. Idaho analyzed win- ages from severe winters will be reimbursed. Nevada operates ter maintenance activities for 5 years of pre-implementation under a unique situation where funds are set on a zero base and 3 years of post-implementation of all-liquid anti-icing on budget, with the legislature allocating funds on a biannual a rural mountainous highway. Their findings are an example basis. In this scenario, severe winters have a direct impact on of what success can be achieved with a well-planned and

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11 $4,500 $4,000 Winter 2002/03 $3,500 Ten Year Max $3,000 Ten Year Min $ per lane mile $2,500 $2,000 $1,500 $1,000 $500 NA NA NA $0 Illinois Maryland California Idaho Indiana Missouri Nevada Oregon Washington Minnesota Nebraska Connecticut Montana FIGURE 2 Approximate winter operation costs per lane mile as provided by respondents. championed program. Table 2 presents the efficiencies for the state has determined the expectations of the driving pub- a specific regional route attained through use of all-liquid lic ("Dashboards Help . . ." 2004). An example of the desired anti-icing. The decreases in the use of resources and num- bare lane is shown on the top left. The graph and dashboard ber of crashes indicated were attributed by Idaho to these examples are from one of the Mn/DOT maintenance districts. changes. The graph on the top right provides the monthly average for the district over the winter of 2002/2003. The dashboard Information regarding the use of performance measures is across the bottom of the figure shows the average number of limited. Seven agencies, Alberta, Edmonton, Manitoba, Min- hours to bare lane broken out by functional class and their nesota, Nova Scotia, Quebec, and Washington State, addressed respective different time expectations. These dashboards are this situation. Two respondents (Edmonton and Saskatchewan) prominent on their website. have documented winter maintenance benefits. More than half of the responding agencies (12) stated that they do not use For Alberta Transportation, the contractor's target is stated performance measures. Two (Caltrans and Illinois) did not as achieving good driving conditions within a period of time respond. This would seem to present an area for advancement specific to road classifications. These times are shown in and the potential for increased efficiency. Table 3. Good winter driving conditions are defined to "exist when snow and ice have been removed from the driving Figure 3 shows an example of performance reporting from lanes and excessive snow has been removed from the shoul- the Minnesota DOT (Mn/DOT). Through customer surveys ders and centre line of the highway. Short sections of ice and TABLE 2 IDAHO TRANSPORTATION DEPARTMENT'S EXAMPLE OF IMPROVEMENTS AS A RESULT OF ALL-LIQUID USE 1992 to 1997 1997 to 2000 Percent of (without anti-icing) (with anti-icing) Change Abrasive Quantities 1,929 cubic yards 323 cubic yards 83 (1,475 cubic (247 cubic meters) meters) Labor Hours (annual) 650 248 62 No. of Crashes (annual) 16.2 2.7 83 Source: Breen 2001.