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13 Lane miles (may cross shed or district boundaries); and casts for winter operations decision makers. Of those, approx- Combination of climate, geography, and contractor imately 16% use a private contracted forecast service exclu- proximity. sively, whereas 37% use a government agency forecast service such as Environment Canada or the National Weather Ser- The routes are generally changeable once the storm begins, vice, and the remaining 47% use a combination of contracted except in cases where they have been determined to coincide and government-provided forecasting services. The agencies with emergency or transit routes or by contractor assignment. typically access the forecasts from the Internet or facsimile Those that are changeable usually adapt to practical constraints and frequently use more than one method to obtain this infor- such as storm conditions, equipment availability, personnel mation. Other methods used include telephone, e-mail, radio, shortages, or a less than worse case scenario for which the and satellite transmission. Most agencies receive updated route is designed. A specific example of what happens as a forecasts between two and six times daily in the regular course result of route changes is that the segment of lowest LOS drops of operations and increase this frequency as needed during in priority; for example, is postponed until later. Changes in winter storms. routes are made by a combination of input from frontline and supervisory levels as based on local institutional guidelines. INFORMATION MANAGEMENT The frontline equipment operator has decision-making authority in the application rate of chemical, abrasive, or com- This area represents the greatest advancement during recent binations in slightly more than 50% of the surveyed agencies. years. There is a far greater number and more extensive uti- This is a subset of localized authority at the maintenance-shed lization of information sources and mechanisms in use at the level used by nearly 85% of the responding agencies. time of the synthesis than 10 years ago. These sources include print, electronic, and interactive. One particular published Three of the respondents, Montana, Nevada, and Ore- source of information providing extremely valuable and use- gon, set the application rates at a headquarters level and in ful information, printed within the past 10 years, is the 1999 one case allow the front line operator to adjust the rates for AASHTO Guide for Snow and Ice Control. reapplications. The FHWA Manual of Practice for an Effective Anti-Icing Program: A Guide for Highway Winter Maintenance Per- STORM CLEAN-UP sonnel, provided a valuable and needed basis for incorpora- tion of the methods and technology (Ketcham et al. 1996). Agencies identified a number of tasks associated with storm This was followed by Test and Evaluation Project No. 28, clean-up plans. In general, plowing plans based on safety and which culminated in the Anti-Icing Technology, Field Report the importance of routes sets priority. This priority is also fre- (Ketcham et al. 1998). This report included results and inter- quently dependent on time of day relative to traffic peaks and pretations, cost analysis, recommendations for practice, and daylight. The tasks include the following: conclusions regarding the state of the art of anti-icing. Clearing driving lanes, bridges, and ramps by plowing Another recently published source of valuable informa- or blowing; tion is the FHWA Road Weather Management Program's Clearing shoulders and approaches; Best Practices for Road Weather Management Version 2.0 Resolving site distance problems by pushing snow back (Goodwin 2003). This resource contains case studies from or removing snow piles; and every region of the country, a listing of road weather publi- Clearing gore areas, signs, and maintaining drainage. cations, an overview of environmental sensor technologies, and on-line resources. In addition, some agencies must focus on using ice-cutting motor patrols to remove ruts. Some agencies report that they The use of the Internet has become so commonplace and sweep, recover, or recycle abrasive materials, particularly in habitual that it is difficult for most maintenance personnel sensitive areas. These agencies include the city of Edmonton, (frontline or management) to describe let alone remember their Nevada DOT, ODOT, and WSDOT. Nevada sweeps in air level of Internet use 10 years ago. It is currently used for access quality nonattainment areas. and delivery for nearly all RWIS information and data except in cases of satellite information delivery (e.g., Weather Ser- DECISION SUPPORT vices Inc. and Meteorologix. The Internet has ended the geo- graphic separation and accessibility of individuals wishing to The increasing use and reliance on RWIS data and road discuss common topics. An example of its success is the weather forecasts was cited as one of the primary changes to snowice list server maintained by the University of Iowa Insti- winter highway operations. Responding agencies did not sin- tute of Hydraulic Research Hydroscience and Engineering gle out pavement temperature forecasts in their replies. All Department and supported by AASHTO's SICOP. This server state and provincial agencies provide access to weather fore- connects management- and administrative-level planners and