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30 REFERENCES "Assessment Report--Road Salts," The Green Lane, Envi- Knapp, K.K., D. Kroeger, and K. Gese, Mobility and ronment Canada, Quebec [Online]. Available: http://www. Safety Impacts of Winter Storm Events in a Freeway ec.gc.ca/substances/ese/eng/psap/final/roadsalts.cfm [6 Environment--Final Report, CTRE Management Project Aug. 2003]. 98-39, Iowa State University, Ames, 2000, 86 pp. AASHTO Guide for Snow and Ice Control, American Asso- Kuemmel, D.E., Synthesis of Highway Practice 207: Man- ciation of State Highway and Transportation Officials, aging Roadway Snow and Ice Operations, Transportation Washington, D.C., 1999, 268 pp. Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, Boon, C.B. and C. Cluett, Road Weather Information Sys- D.C., 1994, 56 pp. tems: Enabling Proactive Maintenance Practices in Wash- Leggett, T.S., Temperature and Humidity Effects on the Co- ington State, Washington State Transportation Center, efficient of Friction Value After Application of Liquid Seattle, 2002 [Online]. Available: http://www.itsdocs. Anti-Icing Chemicals, Forensic Dynamics, Kamloops, BC, fhwa.dot.gov/JPODOCS/REPTS_TE/13660.html. Canada, 1999, 35 pp. Bourdon, R.H., Best Practices of Outsourcing Winter Main- Meyer, E., Cost-Benefit Assessment of Implementing Auto- tenance Services, VMS, Inc., Richmond, Va., 2001, 67 pp. matic Vehicle Location in Kansas Department of Trans- Breen, B.D., Anti-Icing Success Fuels Expansion of the Pro- portation's Maintenance Vehicles, Final Report K-TRAN: gram in Idaho, Idaho Transportation Department, Boise, KU-01-5, University of Kansas, Lawrence, 2002, 93 pp. 2001, available in Best Practices for Road Weather Man- Nixon, W.A., Improved Cutting Edges for Ice Removal, Report agement, Vol. 2, FHWA-OP-03-081. SHRP-H-346, Transportation Research Board, National Chang, N.Y., et al., Cost of Sanding, Report No. CDOT- Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1993, 105 pp. DTD-R-2002-5, CDOT Research/University of Colorado Nixon, W.A., The Use of Abrasives in Winter Maintenance, at Denver, 2002, 174 pp. Final Report of Project TR 434, IIHR Technical Report "Dashboards Help `Drive' Mn/DOT Performance," Minne- No. 416, Iowa Institute of Hydraulic Research, Iowa City, sota Department of Transportation, St. Paul, 2004 [Online]. 2001, 28 pp. Available: http://www.dot.state.mn.us/dashboards/. Nixon, W.A. and A.D. Williams, A Guide for Selecting Anti- Fischel, M., Evaluation of Selected Deicers Based on a Icing Chemicals--Version 1.0, IIHR Technical Report Review of the Literature, Report No. CDOT-DTD-R- No. 420, University of Iowa College of Engineering, Iowa 2001-15, Colorado Department of Transportation, Den- City, 2001, 25 pp. ver, 2001, 273 pp. Nixon, W.A., "Anti-Icing Chemical Guide," IIHR Hydro- Goodwin, L.C., Best Practices for Road Weather Man- science and Engineering, Iowa City, Iowa, 2002 [Online]. agement Version 2.0, Report FHWA-OP-03-081, Road Available: http://www.anti-ice-guide.com/. Weather Management Program, Federal Highway Admin- "Project Description," NCAR Research Applications Pro- istration, Washington, D.C., 2003, 130 pp. gram MDSS, 2001 [Online]. Available: http://www.rap. Highway Fog Warning System, FHWA Tech Brief, Publica- ucar.edu/projects/rdwx_mdss/mdss_description.html. tion FHWA-RD-99-110, Federal Highway Administration, Rea, M.S. and B.E. Thompson, NCHRP Research Results Washington, D.C., 1999, 2 pp. Digest 250: Improved Visibility for Snow Plowing Opera- Hoppe, E.J., Evaluation of Virginia's First Heated Bridge, tions, Transportation Research Board, National Research Final Report VTRC 01-R8, Virginia Transportation Council, Washington, D.C., 2000, 4 pp. Research Council, Charlottesville, 2000, 31 pp. Roosevelt, D.S., R. Hansen, and W.M. Campenni, Lessons Kashuba, T., I-580 Freeway Extension--Maintenance Con- Learned from a Pilot Project of an Automated Vehicle siderations, Technical Memorandum R8, Nevada Depart- Location System in an Urban Winter Maintenance Oper- ment of Transportation/CH2M Hill, Reno, 1999, 13 pp. ations Setting, Final Report VTRC 02-R11, Virginia Ketcham, S.A., L.D. Minsk, R.R. Blackburn, and E.J. Fleege, Transportation Research Council, Charlottesville, 2002, Manual of Practice for an Effective Anti-Icing Program: 17 pp. A Guide for Highway Winter Maintenance Personnel, Routine Road Maintenance--Water Quality and Habitat Guide Report FHWA-RD-95-202, Federal Highway Adminis- Best Management Practices, Oregon Department of Trans- tration, Washington, D.C., 1996. portation, Salem, 1999, 71 pp. Ketcham, S.A., L.D. Minsk, and L.S. Daryluk, Test and Eval- Salim, M.D., M.A. Timmerman, T. Strauss, and M.E. Emch, uation Project No. 28: Anti-Icing Technology, Field Eval- Artificial-Intelligence-Based Optimization of the Manage- uation Report, Report FHWA-RD-97-132, Federal High- ment of Snow Removal Assets and Resources, University way Administration, Washington, D.C., 1998, 296 pp. of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, 2002, 47 pp.

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31 "Snowiest City," Environment Canada, Quebec, 2003 "Welcome to Road Weather Management," FHWA Road [Online]. Available: http://www.on.ec.gc.ca/weather/ Weather Management Program, Washington, D.C., 2004 winners/element.cfm?lang=e. [Online]. Available: http://ops.fhwa.dot.gov/weather/. Tabler, R., Controlling Blowing and Drifting Snow with Snow Zwahlen, H.T., A. Russ, and S. Vatan, Evaluation of ODOT Fences and Road Design, NCHRP Project 20-7 (147), Roadway/Weather Sensor Systems for Snow and Ice Transportation Research Board, National Research Coun- Removal Operations Part I: RWIS, Human Factors and cil, Washington, D.C., 2003, 345 pp. Ergonomics Laboratory, Ohio Research Institute for Trans- The Snowfighter's Handbook: A Practical Guide for Snow and portation and the Environment, Ohio University, Athens, Ice Control, Salt Institute, Alexandria, Va., 1999, 27 pp. 2003, 179 pp.