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4 State DOTs Provincial DOTs California Alberta Connecticut Manitoba Idaho Qubec ** Illinois New Brunswick Indiana Nova Scotia * Maryland Minnesota Missouri Saskatchewan Montana Nebraska Municipalities Nevada Edmonton, Alberta Oregon Moncton, New Brunswick Washington State Vancouver, British Columbia FIGURE 1 Responding agencies and their geographic distribution. with training and skill levels are described in chapter six. ASSUMPTIONS AND CONVENTIONS Emerging technologies just beginning to be introduced to win- ter operations are presented in chapter seven. Conclusions and Because this synthesis is uniquely targeted to frontline and suggested areas for further research are offered in chapter mid-level supervisory winter maintenance decision makers eight. Appendix A is the survey questionnaire, Appendix B a and planners in the United States, English units are used pri- list of the responding agencies, and Appendix C tabulated marily with the International System of Units (SI) secondary results of selected questions. in parenthesis when appropriate.