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40 APPENDIX C Questionnaire Response Matrix

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Idaho Maryland State Question\Agency California Connecticut Transportation Illinois DOT Indiana DOT Highway Minnesota DOT DOT DOT Department Administration 1. What would you describe as the Upgrading snow Brine trucks, Liquid anti-icing Use of 23% salt 1. Creation of Winter 1. Level of service increased 1. Anti-icing/pre-wetting/ three key changes that have occurred removal equipment RWIS, radar chemicals and brine, loss of hwy. Operations Team to review to current "bare roads policy." RWIS affecting your winter maintenance & avalanche control access at section strategy. Real-time maintainers, and disseminate info., 2. Society has an increased 2. Customer surveys operation over the past 10 years? system, information manager's office weather data increase in lane which leads to focus on protecting the 3. Environmental issues network & fog (RWIS). miles recommendations environment and expects SHA w/salt and sand warning system Improvement of regarding snow & ice to manage winter storms trucks/equipment removal, materials, accordingly. equipment, and activities. 3. Use of many new snow & 2. Use of liquids. ice control materials & 3. Improving quality of technologies allows meeting equipment and use of challenges of 1 & 2 technology; e.g., ground speed control 2. Do you have a strategy and/or Y Y Y Y Y N Y policy manual governing snow and ice control maintenance? 3. Please describe or attach an Costs captured Formula for past Salt budgeted on 10 year Budget funded through SHA example of how you budget, track, and by class codes costs and amount of average operating budget as is routine summarize snow and ice control or by district (4) lane miles by district Usage tracked on 2 week maintenance budget. winter operations costs. for budget. Track & reports from districts Predicting use for winter is produce reports Cost tracked by subdistrict extremely difficult, threatening using Maintenance routine budget. Management Prediction is based on mild-to- System (MMS) average winter assuming overages from severe conditions will be reimbursed. Documentation of events is extensive Is this information tied to specific Y Y Y N Y segment locations? 4. What were your winter 2002/03 $27,763,155.00 Not tracked this Not available yet $899.00 Not computed $3,873.64 $668.12. Includes labor, snow and ice control maintenance way equipment, and materials costs in $ per lane mile? b. What were your highest and lowest $43,140,721.00 $1,764.00 $1,067.00 N/C $3,873.64 annual cost in the past 10 years in $ per lane mile? Maximum c. Minimum $23,433,111.00 $671.00 $439.00 N/C $804.87 6. Have you documented any benefits N N Y N N N N from winter maintenance? 7. Do you use performance measures N N N N Y for winter maintenance evaluation? 41

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42 8. Please describe the winter Everyone works Maintenance Winter Improved communications. Maintenance forces are RWIS operation responsibilities and together personnel collect responsibilities: ITS, message boards. primary with support from 511 mn.org: public info. via exchange between different disciplines road condition info. 4 Operations. Traffic Working on ITS not other disciplines. SHA has an web and cell phone such as winter maintenance, traffic times/day for input to operations not implemented EOC as clearinghouse for ITS: Automatic bridge operations, intelligent transportation Road Report involved. statewide info. on deicing systems systems (ITS), and traveler/traffic Traveler/traffic info. road/weather conditions and information within your agency. is by central bureau resources deployed. In severe of operations storms Governor's Office is informed. Pertinent info. is compiled by SHA office of communications personnel relayed to radio and TV for public 9. How many pieces of each equipment type does your agency own or lease? a. Plow only: 10 years ago 0 N/A 1,200 Unavailable b. Plow only: now 287 0 42 N/A 1,268 852 plow trucks c. Spreader only: 10 years ago 0 N/A 900 602 Unavailable d. Spreader only: now 78 0 0 N/A 946 655--State owned 852 plow trucks e. Plow and spreader: 10 years ago 632 N/A N/A 0 Unavailable f. Plow and spreader: now 573 632 391 N/A N/A 11 852 plow trucks g. All-liquid trucks: 10 years ago 0 N/A 0 34 Unavailable h. All-liquid trucks: now 125 3 21 N/A 51 31 Y i. Motorgraders: 10 years ago 2 N/A 37 13 Unavailable j. Motorgraders: now 184 2 53 N/A 24 41 62 k. Snowblowers: 10 years ago 0 N/A 0 4 Unavailable l. Snowblowers: now 119 0 (airports only) 27 N/A 0 3 Y m. Other: 10 years ago 0 n. Other: now 0 10. What type and size of truck is currently specified for snow ice control? a. No. of axles 2 2&3 2 Single & tandem 2 12 b. Gross vehicle weight 30,00034,000 & 70,000 35,000 & 58,000 32,500 lb 41,000 S/A, 52,000 T/A 39,500 21,84032,000 60,00064,000 c. Horsepower 275 & 425 240 250 & 370 210 275 250275 265310 11. What percent of your snow and ice control equipment is outfitted with the following? a. Truck pre-wetter systems: percent 0 0 0 0 5 10 years ago b. Truck pre-wetter systems: percent 50 6 51 30 75 90 85 now c. Wing plows: percent 10 years ago 8 0 0 0 10 d. Wing plows: percent now 15 8 2 4 1 5 80 e. Pavement temperature sensors: 0 0 0 0 0 percent 10 years ago f. Pavement temperature sensors: 15 25 8 Few 5 100 percent now g. Computerized spreader controls: 0 0 0 0 0 percent 10 years ago

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h. Computerized spreader controls: 80 100 100 95 75 90 30 percent now i. Ergonomic display and equipment 0 0 0 0 0 controls: percent 10 years ago j. Ergonomic display and equipment 0 5 0 60 5 controls: percent now k. AVL: percent 10 years ago 0 0 0 0 0 l. AVL: percent now ? 0 0 0 <1 0 m. GPS: percent 10 years ago 0 0 0 0 0 n. GPS: percent now 0 0 0 <1 <1 o. In-cab data collection and 0 0 0 0 0 communication: percent 10 years ago p. In-cab data collection and 0 0 0 75 10 0 communication: percent now q. Other: percent 10 years ago 0 0 N/A r. Other: percent now 0 0 N/A 12. Please indicate the percentage distribution of plow blade types for your equipment. a. One-way: percent of trucks 20 10 59 10 1 4 5 b. One-way: percent of motorgraders 15 0 0 N/A 0 0 c. V: percent of trucks 0 0 5 1 -- <1 d. V: percent of motorgraders 5 0 100 N/A 0 75 0 e. Reversible: percent of trucks 80 90 41 5 98 96 95 f. Reversible: percent of 85 0 0 N/A 0 0 motorgraders 13. Are there any new plow or cutting N Y N N Y: Rubber blades on some N edge components you have applications successfully introduced during the past 10 years? 14. Do you have any specialized in- Y Y N Y N Y: Some with benching Y cab plow/wing control systems? capability 15. What are your spreader 5 & 9 cubic yd N/A 13' = 8.5 cubic yd 8 tons (v-box) 150 lb/lane mile capacities? Maximum b. Average 5 yd Same N/A 10' = 6.5 cubic yd * 6 tons 300 lb/lane mile 16. What type of spreader(s) is/are Tailgate, hopper Hopper & dual Tailgate, all are v- Tailgate 10' and 13' Slip-In Hopper Tailgate & v-box Tailgate, zero velocity, used (e.g., tailgate, zero velocity) type, conveyor dump style box type with Spreader ground oriented conveyor chain & spinner type distribution 17. Are they calibrated? Y Y Y Y Y Y Y b. If yes, how? Output per auger 7:2 mix applied Ground speed Sec 6-200.6.2 for Weigh material Formula--manual & computer Measure output or RPM, to multi-lane calibration software electronic automated/onboard roads procedure electronics c. How often are they calibrated? Start of winter Annually at a Annually & after Varies--would like Once/season unless new Once/season season or when minimum major component annually computer installed vehicle goes in changes for service during winter 43

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44 d. How do you know they maintain Calibration card Usually only if Operator judgment Random checks Data stored in new systems. User monitoring/compare their calibration and perform at the displayed inside mechanical problem Output monitored to see to data collection specified level? truck, worksheet occurs and they are correlation to usage per lane turned in to re-checked mile manager of each section 19. Describe any computerized Apitech spread Pac None Controllers are N/A Muncie Ground Speed DickeyJohn Control Point Use Swenson w/Dickey spreader control or data collection w/DickyJohn ICS Gresen GRS-20-30 Controls on new trucks allows SHA to preprogram John controller systems in place. 2000 Spreader & & Raven DCS-710 multiple liquid and granular Muncie MESP application rates 3001CAL Model b. Please include any significant Acceptance slow, but Good success experiences, successes, or difficulties. growing 20. What is/are your all-liquid truck capacity(ies)? a. Maximum 500 gal 3,500, 2,500, 1,000 5,000 gal 3,200 1,200 gal/lane mile b. Average 2,500, 2,000, 1,000 1,800 gal 1,700 300 gal/lane mile 21. What communication with trucks 800 MHz VHF--low band UHF 47 MHz--UHF/VHF Low band moving to 800 Low band mobile 2-way radios UHF/VHF & 800 MHz do you use? analog repeaters in Chicago MHz at 47 MHz 22. Do you experience any significant N N N Y N problems with these communication methods? b. Describe, if yes. Mountain terrain Limited channel We have some dead spots Not enough channels; existing can cause dead capacity & in the hilly areas of the too crowded. Radios are spots interference from state truck-mounted, not good out of vehicle system truck. Not inner-operable with other highway agencies 23. What deicers/chemicals are used Sodium chloride, Salt brine MgCl2 & calcium CL: Rock salt or sodium Salt, calcium chloride Salt, salt brine, magnesium Salt brine,magnesium by your agency? Please indicate trade salt brines, calcium Meltdown w/shield chloride is primary w/inhibitor, magnesium chloride (liquid), calcium chloride, Ice Ban M-50, Ice name and describe any added magnesium acetate LSW, Icestop IC deicer. Calcium chloride w/inhibitor, salt chloride (flake), potassium Ban M-80, Caliber M1000, corrosion inhibitors. (CMA) 2000, Geomelt C chloride too. brine. Other products: Ice acetate, caliber Caliber M2000, Anderson's Increased use of Ban. Caliber & Geomelt super Deicer, FreezGard sodium chloride evaluated. Zero, salt, calcium chloride, solution potassium acetate, CMA, sand 24. Do you apply corrosion inhibitors N N N Y N N N to your fleet? b. What prompted any changes in the Experience Increased use of Improved technology & Past: liquids to salt using Anti-icing--direct manner in which you apply all liquids 23% salt brine to try proven techniques overhead spray. Now: on- application prevent/pretreat over the past 10 years? to prevent accidents board pre-wetting systems. It was prompted by need to on frosted bridges & allows adding liquid to salt as reduce salt for reduce trust callouts needed. Also, have limited environmental and cost number of anti-icing trucks reasons allowing pretreat roads & bridges. Use liquids in our two automated bridge anti-icing systems 27. Do you use abrasives? Y Y Y Y Y Y 29. Does the individual winter Y Y Y Y N Y Y operations decision maker within your agency have first-hand information and access to roadside weather information pavement surface conditions (RWIS)?

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b. If yes, how is this access Maintenance Internet Detailed RWIS data INDOT to have RWIS up Dist. & frontline maint. shop Statewide RWIS using accomplished? mgr. Computer in on dept. internal 2003/2004 winter. Limited managers have access to Internet interface office & home to computer system. stations now RWIS on ScanWeb work & access RWIS Limited RWIS on home. Mgrs. & engineers in sites department intranet maintenance hq. office and & Internet EOC to same and info. avail throughout Maryland DOT c. If yes, who developed or provides RWIS vendor Third party RWIS data originally 31 sites purchased from SSI ScanWeb/WSI Weather Agency with contract this access? (RWIS GUI) developed interface collected by vendor SSI. 16 installing now. All Source/SSI forecast products. vendor developed the SSI who sends to should be on web '03'04 Maintained by SHA's CHART system. Agency and dept computer Integration Team forecast vendor provide systems data d. Is this access adequate and meet Y Y Y Not determined Y Y all your needs? 30. Please indicate the number of 9 100150 51 31 62 92 automated weather stations your organization accesses and uses. a. Your agency's 9 29 51 27 62 76 b. National Weather Service or airport 2550 0 N/A 16 c. Other: 5070 4 N/A 31. If your agency owns roadside 32 ~65 204 (4/site) 31 158 150 weather stations (RWISESS), how many pavement sensors are deployed? b. Are any active sensors? Y N N N Y N c. If yes, how many? 32 158 d. Are any non-contact sensors? N N N N N N e. If yes, how many? f. Does your agency use NTCIP N N Y Y Y Y ESS? 32. What organizational level and Manager of radio No formal program Central bureau of Service agreement CHART (ITS) Integration Statewide headquarters discipline is responsible for RWIS? communications yet operations w/vendor monitored by Team maintains with district elect. (maintenance) central office servers/software. Office of maintenance maintenance personnel maintain field equip. 34. What is the source of weather Accu-Weather, NWS and VAMS in Dept. computer ContractMeridian WSI Weather Source, SSI NWS/contract/and free forecasts to winter operations decision Inc. selected areas system. Dept. Environmental Technology, Winter Forecasts provider makers? intranet & Internet Inc. systems c. How is it delivered? Fax & Internet Internet Dedicated computer Internet & fax storm FTP via Internet and satellite Internet system & dept. warning feed Internet & intranet. Storm warnings also faxed to specific users d. What are the interval or frequency Daily and at 4-h 2/24 h forecasts/day 4/day Two set forecasts at 4:00 15 min radars, NWS text and 12 h update at 3 am and 6 and period of the forecast? intervals during am and 2:00 pm with SSI forecasts are 2 to 6 times am. 48 h updated every 6 h storms updates as needed daily 35. How has your use of weather RWIS allows We did not use No. of stations RWIS only available in Past: relied on NWS local TV Just implemented 2 yr ago information and deployment of managers to VAMS then. RWIS increased. Indianapolis and Toll Road. and calling contacts in roadside weather stations changed make more data not as available W/training & RWIS In past 2 yr, INDOT has surrounding states. Now: has over the past 10 years? informed to maintenance staff knowledge, decision committed to state-wide consolidated efforts into a decisions makers use data as network. Greater single source for all weather crucial part of their emphasis placed on info. using RWIS snow & anti-icing accurate weather forecasts treatment 39. Do you report winter road Y Y Y Y Y Y conditions? 45

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46 b. If yes, who manages it and how is it Storm center Maintenance Section District offices call in Internally to date. INDOT Managed & disseminated via Office of Traffic Engineer communicated to the public? manned 24 h & Public Affairs via and report working on public report statewide intranet through via 511mn.org during storm. website & 1-800 conditions. EORS. Critical info. Number is recording Database updated & assembled by EOC for public broadcast to map on web is affairs personnel who use public updated for public radio & TV news to reach public c. Do you collaborate or share data N N N Y Y with adjacent districts or states? 40. Do you utilize plow routes? N Y N Y Y Y Y b. If yes, how do you determine Districts Lengths determined Created to cover all Maintenance shop level based Determined by staffing and them? designate routes by highway Interstates, U.S., and state on lane miles. Some routes performance targets through classification & ADT routes in a unit cross shop or dist. boundaries maintenance garages c. Are they dynamically alterable once N Y Y Y Y the storm begins? d. What governs the change? Reduction in LOS Routes designed for worst Intensity of storm conditions, District supervisors can be made on case covering unit. Storm availability of hired contract lowest priority routes cover, manpower, intensity trucks & SHA equipment first could cause change operability 41. Who realistically decides the Field supervisor General Operator Plow operator Driver or unit foreman LOS & intensity of storm are 2 Operator, infra-red applications rate for chemical deicers supervisor or factors driving application pavement temperature or abrasive/deicer mixtures in a given area manager rates. Shop manager gives sensors, RWIS input storm? general direction. Frontline SHA operators & route supervisors have flexibility in use based on conditions in field b. What reference is used to Department Judgment determine or change the rates? snow and Ice policy 42. Please describe your storm clean- Use grader, Push back, snow Pushing back off After driving lanes Clean-up begins after Varies dependent on type & Mainline first, priority A,B,C up plans? snowblower, & removal bridge shoulders, cutting cleared, shoulders storm is over or if extra intensity of storm. Push back cleanup; see snow and ice plow truck to push decks, key down snow berm at (Interstates), then equipment is available shoulders; address site guidance from No. 2 back snow bank & ramps & edge of road. Lastly, rest areas, truck distance problems; scrape make final cut with intersections, signs, gores, in front pull-offs, frontage back to curb and assure inlets, snowblower to commuter lots of concrete barriers roads, etc. drains, and curb openings are keep melting snow & driveways cleared; free intersections, from running across clear accel. & decal. lanes & road. Apply high sides of ramps & bridges abrasives to keep of slush/snow; clear park & materials away ride lots & rest areas; push from stormwater any spilled salt back into barn drains & clean equipment 43. In your winter maintenance Snowplows and Rock salt, 23% salt Weather service, our radio RWIS, liquid applicator tanks, Plows, materials, anti-icing toolbox, which tools are well used? sanders, brine, calcium system, training, anti-icing but is difficult. Saddle tank Snowblowers, chloride, RWIS capability for pre-wetting salt graders, front-end weather forecasts, on trucks. Salt brine & loaders winter prep. magnesium chloride 44. What tools have broken or been 75mm recoilless Can't think of any None Use of sand Abrasives except for Tyler zero velocity sander thrown away in the past 10 years? rifle; don't use liquid thrown away mountains in western state. deicers directly on Overhead spray systems. snow pack Zero Velocity Spreader, Epoke spreader & Ice Ban, CMAK, lessening liquid magnesium 49. Do you utilize snow fences? Y N Y Y Y Y Y b. Type

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Y Y Y Y i. Temporary Y Y Y ii. Fixed Y Y Y Y iii. Living e. Do you have an annual As needed N N Y N N Y maintenance/repair plan and budget for snow fence? 50. Do you have any fixed deicing Y N N Y N Y Y spray installations b. If yes, please describe the length, Curve, length Two bridges have 1. Bridge, 150' long, EB 2 All bridge six locations lane coverage, whether it is for a unknown spray injection lanes, WB 3 lanes (Interstate and truck bridge, curve, etc. system. Length = 2. Bridge, 600' long, EB 2 highways) 474' lanes, WB 3 lanes c. What type of chemical do you use Liquid magnesium Magnesium chloride Potassium acetate Potassium acetate and with the system? chloride w/corn derivative magnesium chloride d. How is the operation of the system Reduces need for Salt still spread on RWIS/ScanWeb automated District controlled. Some integrated into your snow and ice storm patrol for structure if storm in primarily for frost control, integrated w/RWIS control program? isolated section of progress. No minor storms, snow squalls & road requirement for salt early part of large storms. Salt brine if systems trucks deployed as storm working intensifies 51. Are any of your routes subject to Y N Y N N N N snow avalanche hazard? b. If yes, please describe your method Blasters to stabilize Monitoring snow of hazard reduction. zones stability measurements. Training personnel 52. Does your agency utilize or Y Y N N Y N Y operate any visibility, fog, flooded road, or other severe weather warning systems? b. If yes, please describe. Aim beam of light at VMS overhead RWIS stations have receptor at 2 m. signs operated visibility sensors This and loop by 24-h manned detector measures operations center freeway speed. Info. passed to transp. mngt. center 53. Does your agency actively Y N N N N Y N address reduced visibility or fog? b. If yes, please describe. If either sight Overhead message signs to distance drops to alert motorists low or stopped traffic is detected, caution messages are placed on changeable message signs 47

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48 55. Please comment on your greatest Greatest problem is Using more salt Problems: issues Problem here is Problem: Sufficient Greatest challenge: adjusting and least problems as well as areas early season brine makes surrounding providing desired numbers of trained to increasing LOS and you feel the greatest improvements storms coming prior spring clean-up chemical deicers. LOS w/reduction in personnel. Asset: simultaneous cutbacks in can be made relative to winter to arrival of trained easier because Training personnel in head count & dedicated hard-working workforce. Compounded by highway operations during the next 5 seasonal fewer abrasives all new technologies increased lane miles personnel in place. Use of diminishing pool of hired years. employees. Least are being used & equipment technology to compensate equip. to supplement SHA problem is getting for doing more with less is forces. Also, balancing the equipment critical protection of environment needed to maintain while maintaining safe roads at a high standard during and after storms. Combating challenges with increased training of managers & frontline forces, & increased use or new materials and technologies Question\Agency Missouri DOT Montana DOT Nebraska DOT Nevada DOT Oregon DOT Washington DOT 1. What would you describe as the three 1. Anti-icing 1. Use of liquid deicers Better equipment; use of Anti-icing w/salt brine & 1. Maintenance funding 1. Anti-icing key changes that have occurred affecting 2. Ground speed controllers 2. Improvements in equipment liquids; higher demands for magnesium chloride. Improved constraints & limited 2. RWIS your winter maintenance operation over the 3. Salt brine 3. Use of RWIS/weather data "dry" pavement equip., including pre-wetting & personnel resources 3. Performance measures past 10 years? temperature sensors on plow 2. Environmental blades. Implementation and constraints on use of installation of RWIS sites & sanding & anti-icing improved weather forecasting materials 3. Pavement damage resulting from studded tire usage in Oregon 2. Do you have a strategy and/or policy Y N Y Y Y manual governing snow and ice control maintenance? 3. Please describe or attach an example of Use Activities and Functions Maintenance budget & Line item budgeting. Winter ops. History of expenditures how you budget, track, and summarize snow for budgeting & tracking work program based on for labor & materials through with flexibility to alter with and ice control or winter operations costs. expenditures. Activity = historical data. Specific operations. Funds based on zero winter weather storms snow & ice operations maint. activity codes to base line budgeting mechanism Functions = removal of which supervisors report allocated by Nevada legislature on snow & ice from roadway, their crew time, equipment, biannual basis. Funds distributed anti-icing & frost control & & materials, as well as to department districts by NVDOT storm clean-up incidental expenses financial management office. Severe winters have direct impact on funds available for other maint. tasks. All tasks tracked by use of maint. management system Is this information tied to specific segment N Y Y Y Y Y locations? 4. What were your winter 2002/03 snow and Not yet computed $522.00 $832.14 $326.43 Unable to obtain exact $1,478.00 ice control maintenance costs in $ per lane figures mile? b. What was your highest and lowest annual $464.00 $594.00 $1,036.44 $585.14 $1,091.00 $1,571.00 cost in the past 10 years in $ per lane mile? Maximum c. Minimum $263.00 $338.00 $441.69 $326.43 $672.00 $1,136.00 6. Have you documented any benefits from N N N N N/A winter maintenance? 7. Do you use performance measures for N N N N N Y winter maintenance evaluation?

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8. Please describe the winter operation Traffic operations is Dist. maintenance TOCs & ITS are in infancy in TripCheck accessed at Maintenance personnel responsibilities and exchange between responsible for the RWIS & personnel. Highway Nevada. First installations are in www.tripcheck.com had keep roadway safe for different disciplines such as winter ITS programs advisory signs, road south w/little or no winter. In snow detailed winter travel info: public. Traffic ops. works maintenance, traffic operations, ITS, and closures, etc. Road areas some variable message real-time road & weather with ITS for public traveler/traffic information within your conditions are joint boards are in place for road information. Maintenance agency. between dist. maintenance conditions & chain controls. offices give hourly updates personnel & Highway Radio comm. is utilized between to traffic information folks Patrol. Accessible via web field personnel for updating or 511 line conditions to centralized traveler info. centers 9. How many pieces of each equipment type does your agency own or lease? a. Plow only: 10 years ago 0 35 0 N/A Same b. Plow only: now 0 29 0 775 N/A c. Spreader only: 10 years ago 0 0 N/A Same d. Spreader only: now 0 0 435 + 21 chassis mount N/A e. Plow and spreader: 10 years ago 650 575 250 N/A Same f. Plow and spreader: now 1,700 650 600 277 N/A 214 g. All-liquid trucks: 10 years ago 0 0 0 2 5 h. All-liquid trucks: now 4 50 20 17 35 22 i. Motorgraders: 10 years ago 120 176 53 N/A Same j. Motorgraders: now 237 95 137 55 77 48 k. Snowblowers: 10 years ago 40 34 12 N/A Same l. Snowblowers: now 7 40 28 19 35 24 m. Other: 10 years ago 0 pre-wet system n. Other: now 40 pre-wet system 10. What type and size of truck is currently specified for snow ice control? a. No. of axles 2&3 2 3 Single & tandem 3 Single & double b. Gross vehicle weight 32,000 & 56,000 56,000 47,000 lb 12,500 & 34,000 50K 38,000 c. Horsepower 210 & 270300 335 250 Min. 275400 370 54,000 11. What percent of your snow and ice 300+ control equipment is outfitted with the following? a. Truck pre-wetter systems: percent 10 60 0 0 0 1 years ago b. Truck pre-wetter systems: percent now 90 25 10 21 2 30 c. Wing plows: percent 10 years ago 1 1 10 5 N/A 0 d. Wing plows: percent now 5 25 10 17 10 10 e. Pavement temperature sensors: percent 1 0 0 0 N/A 0 10 years ago f. Pavement temperature sensors: percent 50 25 10 92 0 20 now g. Computerized spreader controls: percent 1 0 0 0 N/A 0 10 years ago h. Computerized spreader controls: percent 75 25 10 80 0 20 now i. Ergonomic display and equipment 0 0 0 N/A 0 controls: percent 10 years ago j. Ergonomic display and equipment 35 10 0 0 2 controls: percent now 49

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50 k. AVL: percent 10 years ago 0 0 0 0 N/A N/A l. AVL: percent now 0 0 15 0 0 N/A m. GPS: percent 10 years ago 0 0 0 0 N/A N/A n. GPS: percent now 0 0 0 0 0 N/A o. In-cab data collection and 0 0 0 dc-0/radio 95 N/A 0 communication: percent 10 years ago p. In-cab data collection and 0 0 15 dc-0/radio-98 0 0 communication: percent now q. Other: percent 10 years ago 0 hand-held data collection and communication r. Other: percent now 20 hand-held PDA 12. Please indicate the percentage distribution of plow blade types for your equipment. a. One-way: percent of trucks 2 10 10 65 42 10 b. One-way: percent of motorgraders 10 0 0 c. V: percent of trucks 1 0 20 0 1 0 d. V: percent of motorgraders 40 90 50 30 e. Reversible: percent of trucks 97 90 90 38 12 90 f. Reversible: percent of motorgraders 0 0 100 100 100 13. Are there any new plow or cutting edge Y N N N Rubber & UHMW N components you have successfully introduced during the past 10 years? 14. Do you have any specialized in-cab Y N Y Y 4-way float front plow N plow/wing control systems? 15. What are your spreader capacities? 12 ton 8 cu yd 12 yd 10 yd 10 10 yd Maximum b. Average 8 ton 8 cu yd 10 yd 6 yd 8 10 yd 16. What type of spreader(s) is used (e.g., Slip-in, tailgate or under Slide in bin sander (v-box) Tailgate v-type hopper w/few zero velocity Tailgate Hopper, tailgate, zero tailgate, zero velocity) tailgate, zero velocity velocity & belt or chain-fed to spinner 17. Are they calibrated? Y N Y Y N Y b. If yes, how? Load, weigh, unload, weigh, Run auger on setting & Older spreaders = 20% of fleet Electronically; manually calculate application rates weigh amount put out in 1 use sheet attached. Other units figuring out chain speed min. Assume trucks will use a computerized system and revolutions, weighing run at 30 mph and cover 1 allowing data to be programmed amount of product. At a mi in 2 min. Set to put on by use of the operating manual chain speed setting in 500 lb/mi of straight salt or correlation with ground 750 lb per mi for salt and speed sand mix c. How often are they calibrated? Yearly, before winter use Annually Once per year Beginning of season and as needed during winter operations d. How do you know they maintain their Operator's look for expected Operators given settings. Operator monitoring application & Experience with amount of calibration and perform at the specified duration compared to their Hard to control, Operators re-checking calibration after equip. product used. Normally level? route do change settings does hydraulic system repairs takes "x" amount for specific area

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56 c. Minimum 2,177.00 2,000/lane mile 3,809 $can/km 800 (1,400/lane km) 6. Have you documented any N N N N N Y benefits from winter maintenance? 7. Do you use performance Y Y N Y Y N measures for winter maintenance evaluation? 8. Please describe the winter Currently looking at a number of Provide travel info. to No separate disciplines for Preservation (maintenance) operation responsibilities and ITS initiatives such as variable public through interaction the identified areas services. Primarily responsible for exchange between different message signs and remote with field staff snow & ice control. A provincial disciplines such as winter weather information sites to provide communication center that maintenance, traffic operations, a higher level of service to the monitors changing weather ITS, and traveler/traffic information traveling public. All functional conditions to alert department within your agency. areas that are effected by these crews & general public. Road initiatives are involved in the review condition updates are undertaken as weather changes and work crews complete snow & ice control activities. Department also tries to minimize maintenance require- ments by taking into consideration various design features to ensure that snow drifting & accumulation is minimized 9. How many pieces of each All equipment is owned by private equipment type does your agency maintenance contractors own or lease? a. Plow only: 10 years ago 46 N/A 0 b. Plow only: now 21 29 0 c. Spreader only: 10 years ago 0 N/A 0 d. Spreader only: now 0 0 0 0 e. Plow and spreader: 10 years 102 376 N/A 400 ago f. Plow and spreader: now 533 152 406 276 320 g. All-liquid trucks: 10 years ago 0 0 0 0 h. All-liquid trucks: now 0 0 0 0 3 i. Motorgraders: 10 years ago 108 82 N/A 120 j. Motorgraders: now 50 108 76 56 80 k. Snowblowers: 10 years ago 21 16 N/A 5 l. Snowblowers: now 1 21 16 2 49 3 m. Other: 10 years ago n. Other: now 10. What type and size of truck is currently specified for snow ice control? a. No. of axles 3 3 3 (tandem 6 x 4) 3 (some 2 and 4) 3 b. Gross vehicle weight 64,000 44,00160,000 lb 27,000 kg 22 tonnes c. Horsepower Minimum 275 without wing & 385 310 355 or 395 hp 400 hp minimum 325 with wing 11. What percent of your snow and ice control equipment is outfitted with the following? a. Truck pre-wetter systems: 0 0 0 0 percent 10 years ago b. Truck pre-wetter systems: 10 14 1 80 10 percent now

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c. Wing plows: percent 10 years 90 100 90 5 ago d. Wing plows: percent now 35 52 100 90 80 e. Pavement temperature sensors: 0 1 0 0 0 percent 10 years ago f. Pavement temperature sensors: 10 0 100 2 1 3 percent now g. Computerized spreader 0 10 100 0 controls: percent 10 years ago h. Computerized spreader 100 14 95 100 100 5 controls: percent now i. Ergonomic display and 0 0 0 equipment controls: percent 10 years ago j. Ergonomic display and 0 32 0 0 equipment controls: percent now k. AVL: percent 10 years ago 0 0 0 0 l. AVL: percent now 0 0 0 0 0 0 m. GPS: percent 10 years ago 0 0 0 0 n. GPS: percent now 1 0 0 0 2 2 o. In-cab data collection and 0 0 0 0 communication: percent 10 years ago p. In-cab data collection and 100 (refers to communication with 14 0 100 2 2 communication: percent now operator) q. Other: percent 10 years ago 5--electric over hydraulic joystick plow r. Other: percent now 90 12. Please indicate the percentage distribution of plow blade types for your equipment. a. One-way: percent of trucks 35 28 80 60 50 b. One-way: percent of 2 5 100 0 0 motorgraders c. V: percent of trucks 0 7 40 0 0 d. V: percent of motorgraders 5 15 100 0 0 e. Reversible: percent of trucks 65 65 20 40 50 f. Reversible: percent of 93 0 0 100 motorgraders 13. Are there any new plow or Y N Y N Y cutting edge components you have successfully introduced during the past 10 years? 14. Do you have any specialized Y N Y Y Y Y in-cab plow/wing control systems? 15. What are your spreader 10 cubic yd 250 kg/km 9 m3 (11 yd3) for 3 axle trucks 300 lb/mi capacities? Maximum 3 3 b. Average 6 cubic yd 10150 kg/km 10 tonne 6 m (8 yd ) for 2 axle trucks 100 lb/mi 57

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58 16. What type of spreader(s) is Compuspreader. Premium spread Tailgate, 2-way spreaders, Combination box, driver Tailgate v-box with spinners located on Spinners located mid-section; used (e.g., tailgate, zero velocity) control device. Types 210, 220 & side tilt spreaders, forward side front discharge each side behind cab few rear spreaders 230. Spreaders are located under tilt, stainless steel hoppers spreader with chute & the truck spinner choice some rear on old hoppers some u-box with front and rear options (rear not used) 17. Are they calibrated? Y Y Y Y Y Y b. If yes, how? Mechanics yearly calibrate each Material is weighed, Procedure in manual to Vumertric method Spinners calibrated to equipment truck unit to company specifications spreaders are checked in verify application rate speed & required application rates the shop c. How often are they calibrated? Yearly Annually Once/year plus any time Annually Once/yr Annual, or as required if unit serviced or operator something changes, type of salt, questions accuracy etc. d. How do you know they maintain Department has developed Spreader operator Operator instructors Comparison with quantity of Record keeping their calibration and perform at the Contract Performance Measures in experience coordinate the calibration & salt & sand loaded into the specified level? which the maintenance contractors report to supervisors truck are measured on a yearly basis. Part of the measures is a "Quality Assurance and Quality Control" program the contractor must implement. They are measured on how well they met requirements on yearly basis. One req. is spot calibration on 5% of units. Documentation must be provided 19. Describe any computerized Compuspread 230 & 440 DickeyJohn is major Mostly DickeyJohn ICS 2000 and Currently implementing new spreader control or data collection supplier and Compuspread, a ACE Chlorobyte automated computer controlled systems in place. Compuspread/Basic (<30 few DickeyJohn system to winter maintenance units) and Apitech (<15 fleet units) b. Please include any significant We are presently DickeyJohn has unit experiences, successes, or monitoring the success or compatibility and ease of difficulties. failure of this equipment use for operators through the use of process improvement teams 20. What is/are your all-liquid truck capacity(ies)? a. Maximum 300 gal (Can) N/A None Not used 1,000 gal tank b. Average 150 gal (Can) N/A None 1,000 gal tank 21. What communication with Mike radios (cell phone and radio Fleet net radio, cell phones 400 MHz UHF integrated 2-way radio UHF/VHF UHF/VHP--fleetnet radio system; trucks do you use? combined as one) radio linked and cell phones interconnected through central switch to all provincial radio users (police, ambulance, etc.) 22. Do you experience any Y Y N N Y Y significant problems with these communication methods? b. Describe, if yes. Some areas have dead spots. We vary the equipment Some problems with Areas w/limited or no radio or cell Reduced as new towers installed used to suit the area diffusion's pattern in some coverage areas. Also, radio installation can make interference with electronic devices 23. What deicers/chemicals are Calcium chloride, Coal Guard & Sodium and calcium Sodium chloride road salt, Rock salt, salt brine Calcium chloride NaCl--solid; brine NaCl solution-- used by your agency? Please Tiger Chemicals. Sodium chloride, chloride. Experimenting calcium chloride brine for anti-icing pre-wetting; liquid indicate trade name and describe magnesium chloride, salt brine with pre-wetting with Ice pre-wetting calcium chloride--lower temp. any added corrosion inhibitors. Ban, calibre, and salt ranges; calcium flake--northern brines. No corrosion locations; Calibre 3000--prewet inhibitors sand & pre-wetting; Ice Ban-- same; magnesium chloride--lower temperature ranges

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24. Do you apply corrosion Y N N N N N inhibitors to your fleet? b. What prompted any changes in In process of getting the Economics; better salt the manner in which you apply all maintenance contractors to update management practices; better liquids over the past 10 years? their fleet to include pre-wetting training & understanding in devices. Not part of the tool box regards to road salt science prior to 2001. Environmental concerns & LOS requirements prompted move to pre-wetting 27. Do you use abrasives? Y Y Y Y Y Y 29. Does the individual winter Y N Y Y Y N operations decision maker within your agency have first-hand information and access to roadside weather information pavement surface conditions (RWIS)? b. If yes, how is this access Internet Limited RWIS, but site- Department intranet RWIS data via website One road weather info. pavement accomplished? specific hourly weather site surface condition sensor; forecast & 100 vehicle- investigating technology to add mounted I/R pavement more temperature sensors c. If yes, who developed or Environment Canada (federal RWIS vendor, weather Agency developed Agency NWS, Environment Canada, provides this access? (RWISGUI) government agency) service provider by RWIS vendor provides weather forecasting & pavement temperature predictions in regard to the RWIS info. d. Is this access adequate and Y Y Y Y Y meet all your needs? 30. Please indicate the number of 5 0 10 18 18 automated weather stations your organization accesses and uses. a. Your agency's 5 9 18 18 b. National Weather Service or 0 Environment Canada airport c. Other 9 Outside agency provides info. 31. If your agency owns roadside 5 2 18 1 weather stations (RWISESS), how many pavement sensors are deployed? b. Are any active sensors? N N Y Y Y c. If yes, how many? 13 10 2 d. Are any non-contact sensors? N N Y e. If yes, how many? 4 f. Does your agency use NTCIP N Y Y Y N ESS? 32. What organizational level and District level maintenance for Central office Head office, District level maintenance & District level maintenance discipline is responsible for RWIS? operation/head office for technical Highway Operations central organization support Section 34. What is the source of weather Agreement with Environment Environment Canada site Service agreement with Environment National Weather Service NWS through Environment forecasts to winter operations Canada through the web, radios Environment Canada Canada Canada decision makers? (Meteorological Services Canada) c. How is it delivered? Internet, fax, and phone Radio, Internet Email, website, and fax Intranet, pagers Fax, radio, Internet Fax, Internet, & direct contact with meteorologist d. What are the interval or 2h N/A 2x/day 3 am & 3 pm 3/day Real-time info. with updates as frequency and period of the events change forecast? 59

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60 35. How has your use of weather Not significantly; department is just Has not Greatly increased use of Deployment of roadside No knowledge of RWIS then. information and deployment of moving toward this technology on a 12 h weather forecast info. weather stations started in Evaluating now for national & roadside weather stations changed wider scale (1 h resolution) and 1997 provincial over the past 10 years? meteorologist consultation. Use road temperature from mobile sensors to assist salt application rate determination 39. Do you report winter road Y Y Y Y Y Y conditions? b. If yes, who manages it and how Road maintenance crews do daily Head office road info. clerk District operations collect Highway operation Agency, communicated to Automated phone system updated is it communicated to the public? checks for most roads & report manages info. gathered info. & transmit to section. Via toll free public via website manually when conditions change; conditions to Alberta Motor from regional field staff & communications centre, phone message & personal info. to individuals, if Association. AMA is a private relates this info. to the who compile and distribute Internet required; Internet with up-to-date association that provides road public through the Internet to media, etc., and to road conditions; during severe condition reports to the general & phone contract call centre who events--local radio stations public free of charge by either respond to 1-800 calls from phone or Internet. AMA also public receives road condition reports from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police from time to time c. Do you collaborate or share Y Y with Internet Y Y N Y data with adjacent districts or states? 40. Do you utilize plow routes? Y Y Y Y Y Y b. If yes, how do you determine Winter LOS statements Timing, division location, Geographical location & Based on equipment & labor them? salt routes, service levels climatic conditions & resources that have been contractors proximity predetermined by road classification, average annual daily traffic, safety concerns c. Are they dynamically alterable N Y Y Y N Y once the storm begins? d. What governs the change? Local area supervisors Sometimes service levels Front line Road conditions & safety depending on storm event (high levels treated first, supervisors concerns may cause operators to and their field experience then lower levels) deviate Equipment breakdowns Special conditions 41. Who realistically decides the Operator decides what applications Guidelines in winter LOS. Highway supervisor Truck operator with Team leader Equipment operator application rate for chemical rate Local area supervisor uses determines general rates; some influence from deicers or abrasive/deicer mixtures best judgment. Operators equipment operator adjusts supervisors in a given storm? use discretion rates locally b. What reference is used to Operators receive training Super uses storm Experience; air temperature is Developed charts & actual determine or change the rates? response guide, pavement factor for type of deicer with conditions temperature info. and road surface conditions, graph, and experience. weather, & RWIS information Operator depends on conditions and past experience 42. Please describe your storm Shoulders and approaches are Described in LOS During normal operating Snow removal per attached Clear/plow driving lanes first. clean-up plans? cleared, driving lanes are plowed. hours and in daylight we document Apply salt or other deicing Snow piles in medians or at push back snow banks and chemicals possible. Then work on approaches are pushed into ditch bench/shelf shoulders & highway approaches. far enough so that visibility is not a Check that obstructions or other problem. Piles that cannot be barriers minimize the collection of pushed into ditch are removed. drifting snow Generally abrasives are not removed 43. In your winter maintenance Truck plows, graders, 1. Information: weather, Chemical deicers or toolbox, which tools are well used? loaders, salt & sand road temperature; abrasive/deicer moistures & spreaders 2. Training: plowing, winter pre-wetting science; 3. Mechanical tools: improved plows (left-hand

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wing); 4. Communications 44. What tools have broken or None 1. Mechanical: hopper Pre-wetting difficult to integrate been thrown away in the past 10 spreader boxes, U-boxes years? 49. Do you utilize snow fences? Y Y Y some Y Y b. Type Y Y Y Y i. Temporary Y Y ii. Fixed Y Y Y iii. Living e. Do you have an annual Y Y N N N N maintenance/repair plan and budget for snow fence? 50. Do you have any fixed deicing N N N N N spray installations b. If yes, please describe the length, lane coverage, whether it is for a bridge, curve, etc. c. What type of chemical do you use with the system? d. How is the operation of the system integrated into your snow and ice control program? 51. Are any of your routes subject Y N N N N N to snow avalanche hazard? b. If yes, please describe your Described in Emergency Response method of hazard reduction. Policy 52. Does your agency utilize or N N N N Y N operate any visibility, fog, flooded road, or other severe weather warning systems? b. If yes, please describe. Sign boards along roads & info. through website 53. Does your agency actively Y Y N N N Y address reduced visibility or fog? b. If yes, please describe. Conditions are reported on Only provide permanent warning Internet & via phone & use sign at extreme potential locations of media. Orange delineators are placed on the roadside in chronic poor visibility areas. Shelterbelts are planted & maintained 61

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62 55. Please comment on your Greatest problem is public Increased public Greatest challenge-- Road users travel too fast and Major emphasis on road salt greatest and least problems, as perception. The public expects the expectations, poor driving managing traveler & staff fail to develop a safe attitude management issues. In next 5 well as areas you feel the greatest roads to be bare and dry at all for conditions, commuter expectations & on winter road surface years department will take steps improvements can be made times. Many do not drive according traffic, global warming has communicating our conditions. Expectations are to better manage this re: relative to winter highway to road conditions. Need to work changed weather patterns. program goals and that roads will be in same application and storage. operations during the next 5 years. on public awareness of winter Funding shortages for objectives internally & condition as summer. This Improvements in equipment & driving. Training for operators on equipment is also issue. externally. Includes makes operations training will help address some pre-wetting and anti-icing is also Good things: excellent rationalizing LOS among requirements & related costs problems. Continuing with crucial. Training material should be staff w/substantial various road classes & significant. Meteorological research and implement more geared to the operator level experience. Looking into needs. Needs most knowledge shall be improved environmental friendly alternatives pre-wetting sand & salt, attention to improvement. over next 5 years as well as to road salt anti-icing, RWIS Other challenge is delivery training of operations of training to staff with personnel & access to weather resources. Challenge to info. modify work procedures & labor agreements to realize the benefits of new or improved tools such as RWIS. Least problems occur with snow & ice clearing on arterial high service roads, due to clear objectives, good geometrics, and good road surface Question\Agency City of Edmonton City of Moncton City of Vancouver 1. What would you describe as the three Streetscape adjacent to roadway, Pre-wetting of salt; RWIS; use of casuals New salters; easier cab controls; pre-wetting key changes that have occurred affecting customer expectation for bare all to supplement workforce units your winter maintenance operation over the time, environment the past 10 years? 2. Do you have a strategy and/or policy Y Y Y manual governing snow and ice control maintenance? 3. Please describe or attach an example See attached of how you budget, track, and summarize snow and ice control or winter operations costs. Is this information tied to specific Y N segment locations? 4. What were your winter 2002/03 snow 6,000/lane km and ice control maintenance costs in $ per lane mile? b. What was your highest and lowest 6,250/lane km annual cost in the past 10 years in $ per lane mile? Maximum c. Minimum 4,500/lane km 6. Have you documented any benefits Y N from winter maintenance? 7. Do you use performance measures for Y N winter maintenance evaluation? 8. Please describe the winter operation All together responsibilities and exchange between different disciplines such as winter maintenance, traffic operations, ITS, and traveler/traffic information within your agency.

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9. How many pieces of each equipment type does your agency own or lease? a. Plow only: 10 years ago 22 15 b. Plow only: now 22 17 c. Spreader only: 10 years ago 82 3 d. Spreader only: now 82 3 6 e. Plow and spreader: 10 years ago 82 5 28 f. Plow and spreader: now 82 6 28 g. All-liquid trucks: 10 years ago 75 0 0 h. All-liquid trucks: now 75 0 0 i. Motorgraders: 10 years ago 20 2 2 j. Motorgraders: now 20 2 2 k. Snowblowers: 10 years ago 12 2 l. Snowblowers: now 12 4 4 m. Other: ten years ago 15 walk plows n. Other: now 15 walk plows 10. What type and size of truck is currently specified for snow ice control? a. No. of axles 3 3 b. Gross vehicle weight 45,000 60,000 c. Horsepower 260 395 11. What percent of your snow and ice control equipment is outfitted with the following? a. Truck pre-wetter systems: percent 10 91 0 years ago b. Truck pre-wetter systems: percent 91 100 5 now c. Wing plows: percent 10 years ago 0 0 d. Wing plows: percent now 0 100 e. Pavement temperature sensors: 0 0 percent 10 years ago f. Pavement temperature sensors: 50 30 percent now g. Computerized spreader controls: 100 90 percent 10 years ago h. Computerized spreader controls: 100 100 percent now i. Ergonomic display and equipment 100 controls: percent 10 years ago j. Ergonomic display and equipment 100 controls: percent now k. AVL: percent 10 years ago 0 0 l. AVL: percent now 15 0 m. GPS: percent 10 years ago 0 0 n. GPS: percent now 15 0 o. In-cab data collection and 100 100 communication: percent 10 years ago 63

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64 p. In-cab data collection and 100 100 communication: percent now q. Other: percent 10 years ago r. Other: percent now 12. Please indicate the percentage distribution of plow blade types for your equipment. a. One-way: percent of trucks 0 0 b. One-way: percent of motorgraders 0 100 c. V: percent of trucks 80 d. V: percent of motorgraders 50 100 e. Reversible: percent of trucks 100 100 f. Reversible: percent of motorgraders 100 100 13. Are there any new plow or cutting N N edge components you have successfully introduced during the past 10 years? 14. Do you have any specialized in-cab N Y N plow/wing control systems? 15. What are your spreader capacities? 11 yd 14 metric tonnes Maximum b. Average 11 yd 14 metric tonnes 6 yd 16. What type of spreader(s) is used Custom-built frame mounts that Behind cab mount (e.g., tailgate, zero velocity) unload in hanging racks 17. Are they calibrated? N b. If yes, how? Annual on a track Catch and measure (salt/sand) speed and distance c. How often are they calibrated? Annual plus monthly Annually d. How do you know they maintain their MMS validated weekly Electronically/hydraulic controlled/speed calibration and perform at the specified & distance (computer controlled) level? 19. Describe any computerized spreader All the same Compuspread DickeyJohn unit DickeyJohn control or data collection systems in place. b. Please include any significant experiences, successes, or difficulties. 20. What is/are your all-liquid truck capacity(s)? a. Maximum 1,100 litres b. Average 21. What communication with trucks do 2-way 800 MHz system 800 MHz Cell phone you use? 22. Do you experience any significant N? N N problems with these communication methods? b. Describe, if yes. 23. What deicers/chemicals are used by Road salt (fine only); liquid Salt brine and pure salt Salt only your agency? Please indicate trade name calcium with inhibitors and describe any added corrosion inhibitors. 24. Do you apply corrosion inhibitors to ? Y N your fleet?

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b. What prompted any changes in the Use 100% more often than just for Salt brine application manner in which you apply all liquids over stickability the past 10 years? 27. Do you use abrasives? Y Y 29. Does the individual winter operations N Y N decision maker within your agency have first-hand information and access to roadside weather information pavement surface conditions (RWIS)? b. If yes, how is this access Patrol every 2 h and use vehicle- Accessed through Environment Canada accomplished? counted sensors website c. If yes, who developed or provides this Environment Canada access? (RWISGUI) d. Is this access adequate and meet all Y your needs? 30. Please indicate the number of 1 automated weather stations your organization accesses and uses. a. Your agency's 1 b. National Weather Service or airport c. Other None 31. If your agency owns roadside weather stations (RWISESS), how many pavement sensors are deployed? b. Are any active sensors? N c. If yes, how many? d. Are any non-contact sensors? e. If yes, how many? f. Does your agency use NTCIPESS? 32. What organizational level and Federal government discipline is responsible for RWIS? 34. What is the source of weather Environment Canada special paid NWS forecasts to winter operations decision for reports every 6 h makers? c. How is it delivered? Fax Telephone d. What are the interval or frequency and 6h As much as we want period of the forecast? 35. How has your use of weather Same information and deployment of roadside weather stations changed over the past 10 years? 39. Do you report winter road conditions? N Y Y b. If yes, who manages it and how is it Report to local radio stations and council Through media communicated to the public? c. Do you collaborate or share data with Y N adjacent districts or states? 40. Do you utilize plow routes? Y Y N b. If yes, how do you determine them? Based on traffic volumes and Determined by location of emergency speed and bus service services such as.... c. Are they dynamically alterable once N N the storm begins? d. What governs the change? Road class change ... bus service 65

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66 41. Who realistically decides the Maintenance staff based on our Supervisor in charge of snow storm applications rate for chemical deicers or weather conditions to meet road abrasive/deicer mixtures in a given safety and balance environmental storm? concerns b. What reference is used to determine or change the rates? 42. Please describe your storm clean-up Plow to bare, stack and remove to Load and haul in downtown area. Blow plans? snow sites, sweep all paved roads back subdivisions and main drags. Some in the spring, and recycle sand drags have to be hauled if buildings are too close to the street 43. In your winter maintenance toolbox, Too many to list Weather reports, snow storm reports, salt which tools are well used? analysis spreadsheet 44. What tools have broken or been None None thrown away in the past 10 years? 49. Do you utilize snow fences? N Y b. Type i. Temporary ii. Fixed Y iii. Living e. Do you have an annual Y Y maintenance/repair plan and budget for snow fence? 50. Do you have any fixed deicing spray Y N N installations? b. If yes, please describe the length, lane Bridge coverage, whether it is for a bridge, curve, etc. c. What type of chemical do you use with Calcium chloride same as road the system? material d. How is the operation of the system Just installed this summer integrated into your snow and ice control program? 51. Are any of your routes subject to N N N snow avalanche hazard? b. If yes, please describe your method of hazard reduction. 52. Does your agency utilize or operate N Y N any visibility, fog, flooded road, or other severe weather warning systems? b. If yes, please describe. Local radio and TV 53. Does your agency actively address N N reduced visibility or fog? b. If yes, please describe. 55. Please comment on your greatest and By-law strengthening & enforcement; least problems as well as areas you feel contractors plowing snow onto sidewalks the greatest improvements can be made that have been opened; salt classified relative to winter highway operations toxic--reducing salt consumption using during the next 5 years. methods such as anti-icing & pre-wetting; Public education needs more explanation by way of various media Abbreviations: MMS = maintenance management system; RWIS = Road Weather Information System; LOS = levels of service; SHA = state highway agency; N/C = not computed; ITS = intelligent transportation system; S/A = single axle; T/A = tandem axle; EOC = emergency operations center; AVL = automatic vehicle location; GPS = global positioning system; CMA = calcium magnesium acetate; ESS = Environmental Sensor Stations; VAMS = Value Added Meteorology Service; NWS = National Weather Service; SR = state route; EORS = emergency operations reporting system; EB = eastbound; WB = westbound; N/A = not available; UHMW = ultra-high molecular weight (polyethylene); GPM = gallons per minute; ADT = average daily traffic; AADT = average annual daily traffic; TOCs = traffic operations centers; HAR = highway advisory radio; GUI = graphic user interface; I/R = infrared.