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9 access at the decision-maker level was specifically mentioned nance actives have on the landscaping. These areas are often as an important change. Improved weather forecasts and the no longer available for snow storage, require reduction in use of highway meteorology consultants were singled out as plow speeds to avoid damage, and are sensitive to concen- examples of positive change. trations of deicing chemicals or abrasives. The importance of maintainability often arises with the inclusion of culture- and In recent years, fog and other warning systems have technology-driven trends in the form of context-sensitive attracted increasing interest at a national level. Under an design. It is increasingly important for maintenance to review FHWA-sponsored research project to develop a low-cost, plans and specifications at the design stage to avoid long- reliable fog sensor, several sensors were fabricated, and bench term difficulties and the associated extra costs. and field-tested (Highway Fog . . . 1999). Caltrans specifi- cally mentioned the intelligent transportation systems (ITS) Nevada documented maintenance considerations to be technology available through their fog warning system as included in the design of the I-580 freeway extension between benefiting winter operations. The Caltrans fog warning sys- Reno and Carson City (Kashuba 1999). The design recom- tem has evolved to include four districts consisting of three mendations included: main elements: driver education, enforcement, and a system of sensors and dynamic message signs. Incorporation of divided alignments, Non-use of undivided alignments with vertical separation, Adoption of salt management practices and attention to Wide shoulders and ditches, associated environmental impacts of chemical treatments in Sound wall use only with sufficient snow storage area general has become increasingly important. This issue has (6 m minimum) and no shadowing of the roadway, affected operations from 1994 to 2004 as agencies respond Design of standard detail for installation of snow poles to more restrictive environmental constraints such as storm in proposed barriers, water, storage area, and watershed runoff regulations. For Wide medians (15 m minimum) with minimal use of example, the Oregon DOT (ODOT) has implemented best barriers, management practices developed specifically for snow and Fills to be 0.74 to 1 m above existing grade (i.e., above ice removal and sanding in an effort to minimize impacts the surrounding snow surface throughout a "design win- (Routine Road Maintenance . . . 1999). ODOT also makes a ter"), and concerted effort to recover abrasives in stream sensitive areas Use of snow fences. at the end of each winter season. Maintenance funding constraints and changes relating to SNOW AND ICE CONTROL STRATEGIES personnel were referred to as key issues affecting winter oper- ations. Examples of personnel issues included the loss of The organization of snow and ice control or other winter maintenance workers, increased use of casual or temporary operation activities by the various agencies follows logical workers, and training. One responding agency, Alberta outlines based on the local needs and governmental structure. Transportation, has switched to 100% contract winter main- A common thread expressed by the respondents was "doing tenance provided by private industry. Alberta also experi- more with less" under increasing constraints. enced a doubling of network miles for which they are respon- sible, with the transfer of roads from municipalities. It was Twenty-one (95%) of the responding agencies provide reported that difficulties accompanied this transfer of respon- winter maintenance through their own personnel. Alberta sibility owing to only a 20% increase in the snowplow fleet. uses solely contract personnel. Ten agencies augment their More than one respondent cited an increase in road miles for own employees with contract maintenance workers. One of which they have maintenance responsibility. the 10, Minnesota, uses other government employees under contract. Two agencies, Manitoba and Quebec, augment their Several agencies described the expectations of the public own employees with both private and other government con- for bare pavement as a factor of increasing importance over tract personnel. The specific break out is shown in Table 1. recent years. Readers interested in good examples of guidelines for con- tract operations are referred to Bourdon's Best Practices of Meanwhile, Saskatchewan indicated an overall decrease Outsourcing Winter Maintenance Services (2001). in the severity of winter storms over the past 10 years, not- ing lower than average precipitation over the period. Snow and ice control as conducted by nearly all of the agencies follow organized strategies in the form of written Landscaping adjacent to roadways has become increas- plans, policies, or plow routes. Two state agencies, Maryland ingly prevalent. Its mere presence is another significant issue and Nevada, stated they do not have a policy manual; how- agencies are dealing with in their winter operations. There is ever, both do use plow routes. Four of the surveyed agencies, the extra effort of maintaining the landscaping, as well as the California, Idaho, Nevada, and Vancouver, do have policies, effort of minimizing the negative affects that winter mainte- but do not use plow routes.