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28 T R A N S P O RTAT I O N F I N A N C E 3. There is a persuasive attitude of "not on my budget." should drive finance, not the other way around, and stressed the importance of ensuring accountability to the Martin described ARTBA's "two cents makes sense" public, who is ultimately paying for the investments. She proposal, which calls for an increase in the federal emphasized the need for sound data, sound research, excise tax and other programmatic adjustments, includ- and sound information to set good policy. If the public ing an adjustment to RABA such that inflows are does not understand policy, skepticism mounts and a adjusted to match outflows rather than the other way breakdown in communication results. around; an expansion of the SIB and TIFIA programs; Espinosa emphasized the importance of viewing the and the creation of an escrow account for pay-as-you- public as a partner and the fact that the public wants go funding. He supported a blue-ribbon panel approach choices and also wants to know how institutions are per- to identify alternatives for the future and stressed the forming. The key to successful partnerships is a good importance of a stable and simple program for the understanding between all parties. When such under- future: it should generate sufficient revenues on a stable standing does not exist, communications break down and basis and in a simple manner. projects are ultimately delayed. AASHTO'S LOOK AHEAD LABOR PROTECTIONS Janet Friedl Dennis G. Houlihan Speaking for AASHTO, Friedl emphasized the need to Houlihan, representing AFSCME, focused on the impor- look beyond the next six years and offered three specific tance of labor protections such as Section 13(c), Amtrak points: employee protections, and Davis-Bacon provisions. He reported the union as skeptical about innovative 1. The need to consider what the system will look finance, particularly as it relates to private activity like--how people and freight will best be moved and what bonds. His primary concern related to the potential loss new forces might shape demands on the transportation of accountability when finance moved from the public system. to the private sector. 2. The need to determine how the system will be Houlihan concluded with a discussion of the impor- paid for on a program finance basis, how to extend the tance of workers' rights and security and safety issues. overall size of the program, and whether a new funding He noted the importance of whistle blower protection mechanism is needed--the 1956 answer may not meet and of civil service protection for individuals caught up 2020 needs and beyond. With this, she focused on the in policy debates, such as those relating to environmental importance of thinking of the concept as project financ- regulation. He was concerned about the need to maintain ing, not just innovative financing; calling it innovative accountability and the need for states to have sufficient creates barriers for some to using it. staff to provide necessary oversight for outsourced 3. The need to consider how transportation funding services. fits into the broader context. Friedl focused on the need for continued innovation FOCUSING ON THE SYSTEM in tools and mechanisms and also on the need for human capital to deal with new challenges and the need William D. Ankner to overcome institutional unwillingness to use all tools in the toolbox. Stepping in for Bill Millar of the American Public Transportation Association, who was unable to partic- ipate, Ankner reported the need to be continually RESEARCH AND ACCOUNTABILITY focused on finding solutions to finance an integrated intermodal transportation system rather than its com- Judith Espinosa ponent parts. He pointed out the lack of a level playing field in federal transit and highway investments and Espinosa called for a robust research program and char- called for a correction so that transportation decisions acterized it as critical to future management and financ- would be based on the best transportation decision, not ing of the transportation system. She asserted that policy what was statutorily or financially easier to do.