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H O W T O F I N A N C E T H E N E X T T R A N S P O RTAT I O N P R O G R A M 37 ments. He also discussed examples in Cleveland and Mark Muriello, Port Authority of New York and New throughout Ohio of the use of transportation improvement Jersey districts, joint economic development districts, and local option sales taxes for transit. Looking to the future, Goss suggested that we need less reliance on gasoline taxes, Shadow Tolls increased use of intelligent transportation systems, and bet- ter materials to reduce maintenance costs. Life cycle costing Raymond Tillman should be considered in the procurement process. Throughout his presentation, Goss also stressed the Raymond Tillman kicked off the session by explaining importance of having the business community at the table that shadow tolls are not a user payment or a new fund- and, in particular, supporting funding for preservation ing source but a good tool that allows you to pool and rehabilitation efforts. together various funding sources, build a project quickly, and pay for it over time. He explained that it is important to identify who benefits and provide funding proportional Discussion to the benefits reaped. According to Tillman, shadow tolls are simple to competitively bid and politically appealing Stephen Lockwood and generate no toll resistance from users. Concerns relating to toll (and shadow toll) project Serving as the discussant for this session, Steve implementation include Lockwood raised a number of discussion points: Politics and the allocation of scarce or limited The high value of local option sales taxes, with a 1- resources, cent sales tax generating the revenue value of a 30-cent Legal issues regarding what is feasible under current gas tax; laws and regulations, The importance of education and public relations Necessary cooperation among sectors and across in getting legislative flexibility and voter buy-in; and agencies, A potential area of concern being how projects are Perceptions and the need for public education, or should be prioritized: coming through the planning Lack of projects that are 100 percent financially process in State Transportation Improvement Programs viable, and and transportation improvement plans versus "sexy" Longer and more complex (and uncertain) project projects placed directly on the ballot. development procedures. Lockwood challenged the group to consider whether it was a problem that, in getting funding initiatives in place, Case Study: OrlandoOrange County high-profile projects were potentially sidestepping the tra- Expressway Authority ditional planning processes. He also noted the "home run" for local transportation funding in California and Harold W. Worrall the fact that this does not seem to be replicated elsewhere in the country. He raised the question of how we knock Harold W. Worrall provided a case study of the down the apparent barriers in other jurisdictions. OrlandoOrange County Expressway Authority. The One idea that came out of the discussion was adding history of the expansion of the system and the strong local initiatives to the Innovative Finance website to revenue growth indicate that Orlando has an environ- provide marketing support for such initiatives. Others ment that is politically and publicly accepting of tolls. noted the important role MPOs play in educating local According to Worrall, electronic toll collection is key to legislators on transportation funding. implementing open road tolling within the next 5 years. He pointed out that people would rather pay tolls than taxes; they just don't want to stop to do it. SESSION 4: USER-PAY TECHNIQUES: TOLL ROADS AND BEYOND Opportunities for Value Capture and Michael A. Pagano, University of Illinois at Chicago Value Pricing (Moderator) Robert Poole, Jr., Reason Foundation (Discussant) Mark Muriello Raymond Tillman, URS Corporation Harold W. Worrall, Orlando-Orange County Mark Muriello described the Value Pricing Program of the Expressway Authority Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. The goals of