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16 CHAPTER 5 DRIVER INTERVIEWS 5.1 DRIVER INTERVIEW METHODOLOGY gators, as experts in the trucking industry using common sense, were able to sample a typical or representative segment In order to collect safety belt usage and perception data of the truck driving population. This was partially achieved from truck drivers, the research team designed and used a through the site selection process. In other words, large pop- structured survey interview approach. The survey guide was ulations of truck drivers are typically found at well estab- pre-tested with several drivers to ensure that it could be com- lished truck stops. Furthermore, the geographic locations of pleted in 3 to 5 min. The structured interviews were con- the sites offered a variety of industry sectors and sizes. Before ducted at two large truck stops located in the Atlanta and each interview began, the interviewer confirmed that the sub- Minneapolis metropolitan areas. ject was a truck driver if he or she had not seen the subject The on-site random interviews were conducted with driv- actually driving a truck. Lastly, the first question of the struc- ers entering or exiting the truck stop facilities. As added tured interview, "What percentage of the time do you wear a incentive, driver respondents were offered a pre-paid calling safety belt while driving your truck?" confirmed that the sub- card for participating in the survey interview. The survey ject was, in fact, a CMV driver. guide is presented in Appendix C. The sample did not cover, however, all representative driver Similar to the written survey of fleet managers, many of the subpopulations. For example, since data collection occurred driver questions presented in the structured interview tended between the hours of 8:00 a.m. and 5:00 p.m., regular city to be speculative or subjective in nature (e.g., What percentage interline drivers might be underrepresented. The sample might of the time do you wear a safety belt?). However, several ques- overrepresent long-haul truck drivers because local delivery tions were more objective in design (e.g., Is there a penalty at drivers were less likely to stop at the major, full-service truck your company for not wearing your safety belt?). Finally, data stops such as those located in Hudson, Wisconsin, and Conley, relating to driver respondent physical qualities such as age, Georgia. Confidentiality was ensured by not recording subject height, and weight were estimated by the interviewer. names or the companies for which they worked. Each structured interview with the truck driver was initi- For data collection, interviewers entered responses on-site ated with an introductory discussion that highlighted the by hand during each interview. The interview data were later research objectives, research team members, and the confi- entered into a spreadsheet by an individual who was not an dential and voluntary nature of the interview. The objective interviewer. of the introductory discussion was to ensure that each driver understood that the interview was optional, the data collected could not be traced to them, and that there was therefore no 5.1.2 Interview Design and Data reason to answer in a manner that was untruthful. The CMV driver interview guide contains 5 parts: 5.1.1 Data Collection and Analysis Part 1: General Questions. These questions asked what percentage of the time a driver wore a safety belt in two The structured interviews were given over 3 days at two separate situations, why the subject made that choice, and sites. On the first day, two ATRI interviewers collected data at what reasons were offered for not wearing a safety belt. a truck stop with 90 parking spaces off Interstate-94 in Hud- Part 2: Functionality. These questions focused on com- son, Wisconsin (located in the Minneapolis-St. Paul region). fort, usability, complaints, and possible improvements On the second and third days, three ATRI interviewers col- for safety belts. lected data at a much larger 230 parking space truck stop Part 3: Carrier/Driver Interactions. These questions located just off Interstate-285, the Atlanta Perimeter, in Con- focused on company policy, penalties, rewards for desired ley, Georgia. Interviewers were on site for 8 hours each day. behavior and potential incentives. The method used to sample truck drivers for this project Part 4: Trucking Related Demographics. These ques- can best be described as convenience sampling. The investi- tions determined driver experience, fleet type, and cargo.