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35 REFERENCES Australian Transport Council. National Heavy Vehicle Safety Strat- Gorton, C. Seat Belt Pre-Tensioning Technology. Presented at SAE egy: 20032010. National Road Transport Commission, 2003. Symposium on Safety Belt Technologies, TRW Automotive, Washington, D.C., May 12, 2004. Balci, R., Vertz, A., and Shen, W. Comfort and Usability of the Seat Gowdy, V., George, M., and McLean, G. A. Comparison of Buckle Belts. SAE Technical Paper Series, No. 2001-01-0051. Presented Release Timing for Push-Button and Lift-Latch Belt Buckles. at SAE 2001 World Congress, Detroit, MI, March 2001. Reprinted FAA Technical Report No. DOT-FAA-AM-99-5, FAA Civil in Human Factors in Automotive Design (SP-1591). Aeromedical Institute, Oklahoma City, OK, Feb. 1999. Boyce, T. E., and Geller, E. S. "Attempts to Increase Vehicle Gras, M. E., Cunill, M., Planes, M., Sullman, M. J. M., and Oliveras, Safety-Belt Use Among Industry Workers: What Can We Learn C. 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36 McGuffie, D. "Seats." Drivers: for the Owner/Operator and Pro- Sahai, V. S., Pitblado, J. R., Bota, G. W., Rowe, B. H. "Factors fessional Truck Driver, Feb. 1, 2002, available on the web at: Associated with Seat Belt Use: An Evaluation from the Ontario Health Survey." Canadian Journal of Public Health-Revue Cana- McNamara, J. "Protecting Drivers: Seat Belts Are the First Defense." dienne De Sante Publique, Vol. 89, No. 5, 1998, pp. 320324. Transport Topics, Mar.10, 1997a, pp. 8, 12, and 54. Scott, K. "Safety Belt Use in Large Trucks: A Guide to Encourage McNamara, J. "Protecting Drivers: Seat Belts Remain the Best Safety Belt Use among Drivers of Heavy Trucks." U.S. DOT HS First Defense in the Event of an Accident." Go West, May 1997b, Technical Report No. 807-964, National Highway Traffic Safety pp. 811. Administration. U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, Muller, K., Veneziano, D., and Hallmark, S. "Evaluation of Racial D.C., April 1993. Differences in Seat Belt and Child Restraint Use: A Review of Shinar, D., Schechtman, E., and Compton, R. "Self Reports of Safe Current Literature." Technical Report No. CTRE Project 03-151, Driving Behaviours in Relationship to Sex, Age, Education and Iowa State University Center for Transportation Research and Income in the U.S. Driving Population." Accident Analysis and Education, Ames, IA, Jan. 2004. Prevention, 2001, Vol. 33, pp. 243255. Paddan, G. S., and Griffin, M. J. "Use of Seating to Control Exposures Shults, R. A., Elder, R. W., Sleet, D. A., Thompson, R. S., and to Whole-Body Vibration." Contract Research Report No. 335/ Nichols, J. L. "Primary Enforcement Seat Belt Laws Are Effec- 2001. Health and Safety Executive, Human Factors Research Unit, tive Even in the Face of Rising Belt Use Rates." Accident Analy- University of Southampton, United Kingdom, 2001. sis and Prevention, Vol. 36, No. 3, 2004, pp. 491493. Parker, J. G. "European Trucks Are Safe--But Drivers Don't Buckle Sickon, R. Technologies to Improve Seatbelt Usage. Presented at Up: Cab Strength, Soft Interiors Cannot Compensate for Resis- SAE Symposium on Seat Belt Technologies, Delphi, Washing- tance to Seat Belts." Transport Topics, Mar. 1997, pp.10 and 54. ton, D.C., May 12, 2004. Preece, R. The Safety Benefits from Seat Belt Use by Heavy Truck Society of Automotive Engineers. "Human Factors in Driving and Occupants. Presented at the 25th Australasian Transport Research Telematics, and Seating Comfort." A special publication of the Forum, Oct. 2002. SAE 2004 World Congress. SAE-SP No. 1877, Warrendale, PA, Prentkowski, D. Considerations for Optimizing Pretensioner Per- 2004. formance in Automotive Seat Belt Applications. Presented at White, D. J., and Washington, S. P. "Safety-Restraint Use Rate as SAE Symposium on Safety Belt Technologies, Autoliv North Function of Law Enforcement and Other Factors--Preliminary America, Washington, D.C., May 12, 2004. Analysis." In Transportation Research Record 1779, TRB, The Reed, M. P., and Lehto, M. M. "Development of Belt Fit Assess- National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2001, pp. 109115. ment Components for the ASPECT Manikin." UMTRI Technical Report No. 2001-13, The University of Michigan Transportation Note: References for Appendix E of this synthesis are included in Research Institute Biosciences Division, Ann Arbor, April 2001. Appendix E.