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A-1 APPENDIX A PROJECT STATEMENT OF WORK This appendix has not been edited by TRB. (Note: the following also includes the enhanced Statement of Work which was approved for conduct of this synthesis.) TITLE: Commercial Motor Vehicle Driver Safety Belt Usage Synthesis Study SUBMITTED BY: Janet Kumer, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), Office of Communications, Outreach Division (MC-CMO) BACKGROUND FMCSR (49 CFR 392.16) requires the use of safety belts by commercial motor vehicle drivers (CMV). In 2003, FMCSA completed a safety belt usage study about truck drivers. A total of 3,909 trucks were observed. The overall safety belt usage rate for commercial vehicles observed in the study was 48 percent. This compares to a usage rate of 79 percent for all passenger vehicles (U.S. DOT National Occupant Protection Use Survey (NOPUS) Survey, June 2003). FMCSA does not currently have motivating factor data about CMV driver safety belt usage. Addi- tional information is needed about the CMV truck driver population and about motor carrier company safety belt usage requirements, to determine the most effective means of improving safety belt usage. FMCSA has developed a CMV safety belt improvement program and will use its 2003 study as an indicator that a problem exists concerning low use of safety belts by CMV drivers. Additional usage studies will be required to obtain a more precise baseline against which future enforcement and education/outreach activities will be evaluated. These studies will provide more information than exists now about our target driver audience and will identify motivating factors for their wearing or not wearing safety belts. Obtaining this informa- tion will assist the agency in developing and implementing enforcement and education/outreach strategies to improve safety belt usage among CMV drivers. SCOPE OF WORK FMCSA through the Office of Research and Technology is requesting the Transportation Research Board (TRB) conduct a synthesis study and identify best practice techniques used by transportation managers to increase the use of safety belts among commercial motor vehicle drivers. Additionally, the synthesis study will explore the industry to identify why CMV drivers do or do not buckle up. In order to develop the best education and outreach enforcement program to improve the usage of safety belts (currently 48% usage) by commercial motor vehicle drivers, the FMCSA needs to (1) to locate and assemble documented information regarding driver motivations (i.e., why they do and do not wear safety belts) and motor carrier operation programs and best practices in regard to safety belt use; (2) to learn what practice has been used for solving or alleviating this problem of not using safety belts; (3) to identify all ongoing research on safety belt use by commercial motor vehicle drivers and motor carrier operations to encourage use of safety belts; (4) to learn what problems remain largely unsolved; and (5) to organize, evaluate, and document the useful information that is acquired. FMCSA is seeking a clear picture of what the motor carrier industry is doing to encourage/ discourage the utilization of safety belts. This includes a cross sector representation including but not limited to: tankers; large fleets, small fleets, independent owner operators, private carriers, motor coach carriers, short haul operators and unionized motor carriers and drivers. FMCSA needs to obtain motor carrier policies and procedures in regard to improving safety belt use. FMCSA needs information regarding what works and what does not work in the areas such as: technology, driver motivation techniques, motor carrier procedures, operations and training. FMCSA expects results from focus groups and surveys of CMV drivers and motor carrier management. FMCSA understands anecdotally that some CMV drivers do not wear safety belts because of dis- comfort associated with the belt (i.e., how it is installed, length of belt, etc). FMCSA is interested in
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A-2 identifying safety belt mechanisms used in various large truck cabs of the major truck manufacturers and any problems associated with these belts or the manner in which they are installed. FMCSA's Safety Belt Improvement Plan for CMV drivers encourages industry associations to con- duct driver surveys to determine why some CMV drivers wear safety belts and others do not wear safety belts. For instance, the plan mentions the possibility of OOIDA conducting a follow-up survey to the one they conducted in 2001. Additionally, the plan encourages industry associations to conduct motor carrier (company) surveys to determine best practices of motor carriers to identify why some CMV drivers wear safety belts and others do not wear safety belts. For instance, Praxair Inc., a pri- vate motor carrier, requires all its CMV drivers to wear safety belts and penalizes those it finds not wearing them. FMCSA expects these surveys to be completed at approximately the same time the synergy study is completed. Motor carrier stakeholders may be less critical of research generated by FMCSA than on similar research performed by potentially biased industry organizations. For this reason, partner research will be used only to corroborate what FMCSA learns from its own research, not as the foundation upon which to base its education and outreach activities. The recommended driver and motor carrier surveys and the TRB Synthesis Study are scheduled to be completed during the same timeframe. Potential double surveying may cause confusion with drivers and carriers. Therefore, FMCSA is amenable to the idea of the TRB Synthesis research team coordinating the survey development and deployment with the industry. SYNTHESIS AUDIENCE · Commercial motor vehicle carriers and drivers regulated by the FMCSA · Federal agencies C FMCSA C National Highway Traffic Administration (NHTSA) · State highway agencies · Motor Carrier Safety Assistance Program (MCSAP) agencies · State legislators · U.S. Congress · Motor carrier and motor coach associations · CMV driver associations, · Enforcement organizations C Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance (CVSA) C International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) INFORMATION SOURCES · Other countries' motor carrier transportation programs · Motor Carrier and Motor Coach Associations C American Trucking Associations (ATA) C National Private Truck Council (NPTC) C National Tank Truck Carriers (NTTC) C Motor Freight Carriers Association (MFCA) C American Bus Association (ABA) C International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) · Driver Associations C Owner Operators Independent Drivers Association (OOIDA) C Teamsters · State MCSAP agencies · Enforcement organizations C CVSA C IACP · Academic studies · Manufacturers of commercial trucks and safety belts · National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) · IMMI
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A-3 ENHANCED SCOPE OF WORK FOR MC-08 CTBSSP--Safety Belt Use by Commercial Vehicle Drivers In the Proposed Work Plan for Project Number MC-08--Synthesis Report on Commercial Vehi- cle Driver Safety Belt Usage--submitted on May 15, 2004, the MaineWay Services Team suggested an expanded effort for the Project to provide a wider and deeper sample of fleet manager and driver opinion, and a more extensive ergonomic assessment. Based on the suggestions in the Work Plan, the Team expanded its efforts as follows. Driver Interviews · The initial proposal planned structured interviews at one or two truck stops or weigh stations, reaching approximately 100 drivers. · The enhanced proposal will include the following. C Structured interviews at a minimum of four truck stop sites in the South, Midwest and possi- bly the Northwest, including several additional days of effort. The effort would consist of day long presence by the interviewer at the selected truck stops. Each interview would take from 510 minutes, as required to go through the question list C A target population of at least 400 drivers C Use of an incentive approach utilizing a pre-paid telephone card for 10 minutes of call time C Additionally, the Team will consult with the Teamsters to ensure that available driver popu- lation lists are utilized Fleet Manager Surveys · The initial proposal planned a limited survey population of safety and operational managers which would not yield significant disaggregation of data by operation type, fleet size, or other factors. · The enhanced proposal will C Include a broader sample approach as follows: b Approximately 500 fleet managers will be surveyed, with the objective of a resulting return of 200 responses. These will be targeted through a focused mailing using ATA, NPTC, National Tank Truck Association, Truckload Carriers Association, Motor Freight Carriers Association lists. b Initial written returns will be monitored and evaluated in relation to return targets. The Team will then supplement the initial mailing, as needed using blast fax, and on-line sur- vey techniques with a broader population including state associations to bring the return to the desired level. C Provide disaggregation of survey results by categories including Private Fleets, For-hire fleets distinguished by Truckload and Less than Truckload groups, Specialized Carriers, Couriers, and Bulk Carriers, assuming a minimum of 10 respondents in these categories. Group Interviews · The initial proposal did not include group interviews. · The enhanced proposal will include C Group Safety manager interviews as follows: b A meeting with managers at the conference of the Safety and Loss Prevention Managers Council b A structured conference call with the NPTC Safety Committee b A meeting with safety managers organized through the Motor Freight Carriers Association b A planned meeting with a Praxair terminal manager C Group Driver interviews as follows: b A conference call with the ATA Road Team Captains b Separate group sessions during the National Truck Driving Championship in Minnesota b A group of Praxair drivers
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A-4 Targeted Discussion Sessions · Jerry Krueger will include a safety belt usage discussion topic in a series of otherwise planned training sessions for Health and Wellness through an FMCSA/ATRI program over the next several months. Focused Ergonomics Review · The initial proposal was limited to a literature review and ergonomic factors identified in the interview processes. · The enhanced proposal will include the following, broader range of activities: C A "hands-on" ergonomics evaluation including physical inspection, examination, and opera- tion of from 34 different types of safety belts utilized in commercial vehicles. C Use of commercial drivers in test locations, to provide live operational demonstration trials of the range of safety belts. C Coordination and discussion with several original equipment manufacturers relating to choices of safety belt suppliers. This will occur with the cooperation of the Truck Manufacturers Asso- ciation, which has volunteered to assist in this aspect of the analysis. C Contacts and discussions with 23 vendors of commercial vehicle safety belts regarding their research programs and other strategies regarding safety belt design. C Focused analysis of ergonomics related questions in driver and fleet manager interviews.