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7 of several Australian studies that examined the rate at which A similar study by Geller (Dec. 1982) offered employees truck drivers and passengers used safety belts, the reasons of a munitions plant an opportunity to win a prize contingent that decisions were made to use a safety belt, and the actual on safety belt use. Geller found that safety belt use more than value of safety belt use for heavy truck drivers and passen- doubled during the incentive treatment, but fell back to pre- gers. The research concluded that drivers believed that safety vious levels during a follow-up. These two studies appear to belts were dangerous to use and could be made more com- indicate that quick, one-time incentives do not contribute to fortable. Note that these same attitudes were present in the long-term safety belt use. driver interviews. In a series of case studies and recommendations, Geller Furthermore, understanding that a need for increased safety (Oct. 1982) described incentive types for use by employers belt use among CMV drivers was necessary, the study rec- with a goal of influencing safety belt use among employees. ommended providing information about the safety benefits of An emphasis was placed on incentives, rather than disincen- safety belt use to the drivers, encouraging truck owners to tives, with discussion of incentive types including direct and equip vehicles with proper safety belt systems, informing immediate rewards, direct and delayed rewards, and indirect drivers of the legal reasons for wearing a safety belt, and rewards. finally, increasing enforcement of current safety belt-related The long-term effects of employer programs designed to regulations. increase safety belt use were explored in Geller et al. (1987). They reviewed 28 different programs at nine separate occu- pational settings that targeted safety belt use. Four categories 2.2.3 French Study were determined within the nine settings: those that offered direct and immediate rewards, those with direct and delayed To understand the relationship between level of injury and rewards, those with indirect and delayed rewards, and those safety belt use, accident victims were studied in trauma rooms that offered no rewards. Several conclusions were drawn: over a 5-year period in the Rhone region of France (Charbotel 2003). It was found that drivers of trucks were more likely to Amount of participant involvement elicited by the be seriously injured than their car-driving counterparts. The intervention. Smaller discussion groups elicited more research found a statistical ratio of 1.87 for truck operators participation per participant. Thus, try to keep discus- receiving severe injuries, compared with automobile drivers, sion groups fairly small to elicit more active driver in similar crashes. Researchers placed blame for this higher involvement. rate and scope of injury on the lack of safety belt use by truck Degree of social support promoted by the interven- drivers. The research thus highlights the problem of low use tion. Social support was usually affected by the degree of rates of safety belts among truck drivers and the potential harm active peer, friend, and family involvement. If possible, of not wearing a safety belt when driving a truck. try to involve family members and coworkers as much as possible; they can be a valuable source of motivation and 2.3 DRIVER MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS support. AND INCENTIVES FOR SAFETY BELT USE Amount of specific response information transmit- ted by the intervention. In other words, be specific and The provision of incentives for both private and CMV driv- explain intervention components and new behavioral ers to wear safety belts has been studied extensively, and the knowledge clearly and carefully. research has found that those who chose to wear their safety Degree of extrinsic control exerted by the interven- belts did so for a number of reasons. As documented in Chap- tions (i.e., incentives and disincentives). Try to man- ter 5, safety, laws, and family all played a role in why users age the use of incentives and disincentives and only use chose to wear a safety belt regularly. But when drivers were them if other approaches have failed. partial users or strong non-users, the latter reasons did not Individual's perception of autonomy or self-control appear to play a role in increasing safety practices such as regarding the behavior change procedures. Auton- safety belt usage. Incentives, however, have been shown to, omy was increased by the perception of intrinsic control at the very least, influence drivers in the short term to wear and freedom of choice. Thus, allowing employees to safety belts. choose their own safety-related goals and other inter- Geller, Paterson, and Talbott (1982) described a situation vention components will increase feelings of empower- where college staff, students, and faculty were offered con- ment and self-control. tingent and non-contingent rewards for safety belt use and found that only those rewards that were contingent on safety More recently, the effects of incentives tools as a motiva- belt use significantly impacted behavior, though both rewards tional factor in increasing safety belt use was explored had a message regarding the use of safety belts. Thus, it appears by Hagenzieker, Bijleveld, and Davidse (1997). The study to be important that safety belt use relate directly to the incen- team conducted a meta-analysis of research publications tive for the practice to be effective. regarding the use of incentives for safety belt use. Two coders