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52 LITERATURE REVIEW--FATIGUE According to the Scope of Work, the literature to be operational and performance models reviewed in Task 2 pertains to "hours of service (HOS) and alertness, fatigue commercial vehicle operator performance and fatigue, espe- distraction and reaction time cially as they pertain to driver health. The purpose of this facet Drivers and fatigue of the literature review is to provide information that clearly Drivers, fatigue, and the following discusses in a scientific, experimental, qualitative, and quanti- Driving performance tative way the relationship between the hours a person works, Driving hours drives, and the structure of the work schedule (on-duty/off- Length of sleep time, sleep deprivation duty cycles, time on task, especially time in continuous driv- Shift work ing, sleep time, etc.) and the impact of CMV driver fatigue Sleep deprivation countermeasure (including naps) and performance." Alertness, fatigue Distraction and reaction time CMV operators and PROCESS AND METHODOLOGY HOS Hours of work The TRANSPORT database from the University of Toronto Work rest schedules library system was used for the literature search. The key Workload resource within the database is Transportation Research Sleep schedules Information Services (TRIS) from TRB. TRANSPORT is a Rest periods bibliographic database of transportation research and eco- Performance (as opposed to `"driving performance") nomic information. It is produced by the 25-nation Organi- sation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), headquartered in Paris, together with the United States' TRB SELECTION CRITERIA and the 31 nations of the European Conference of Ministers of Transport (ECMT). TRANSPORT combines the follow- The following are a list of references from the scientific and technical literature concerning HOS and CMV operator per- ing databases: TRIS from TRB includes 300,000 bibliographic formance and fatigue, especially as they pertain to driver citations, most with abstracts, of research information on all health. The references focus on experimental studies or sur- surface transportation modes, air transport, and highway veys. Literature reviews and papers focusing on policy have safety. International Road Research Documentation (IRRD) been excluded from this list. Papers focused specifically on from OECD contains 200,000 abstracts on highway research crashes as well as sleep deprivation countermeasures, harmful/ provided by OECD member countries. TRANSDOC from toxic substances, technological approaches to CMV driver ECMT contains 37,000 abstracts of transportation econom- alertness management, and distraction and reaction time ics literature as well as bibliographic records provided by the have also been excluded from this list. International Union of Railways (UIC). A search for articles after 1995 was performed on the data- base using the following terms: Primary Sources CMV operators and fatigue Primary references met the following selection criteria. CMV operators, fatigue, and the following Each reference had to address truck driver performance (on driving performance road or in driving simulators) and include some measure of driving hours, time on task, duration of work-weeks performance (vehicle control or critical incidents) in associ- length of sleep time, sleep deprivation ation with driving. Studies had to involve drivers on typical shift work, schedule regularity, schedule irregularity work-rest schedules, that is, they involved extended hours of sleep deprivation countermeasure (including naps) driving, driving in a sleep-deprived state, and/or driving at HOS regulations night. The 26 primary references, in order of first author, are schedules, shift rotation, multi-day shifts listed on page 93. Where available there are abstracts shown

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53 for each study. In many cases, several publications pertained 5. Team vs. single long-haul driving; Performance to the same study. In total, there were 13 distinct studies. These and subjective levels of fatigue over 4,500 Km trip are shown in the following subsection and are reviewed in the (Australia) Article Summaries, using the format prescribed by FMCSA. Feyer, A.M., Williamson, A., and Friswell, R. "Bal- ancing work and rest to combat driver fatigue: An investigation of two-up driving in Australia." (1997). Distinct Studies Accident Analysis & Prevention, 29 (4) 54153. 6. Time of day effects on performance (e.g., lane posi- 1. Effects of long hours on critical incidents; Survey tion, speed, etc.) in simulated driving task; effect of of truck drivers and companies in an unregulated naps on performance state (Australia) Gillberg, M., Kecklund, G., and Akerstedt, T. (1996). Arnold, P.K., Hartley, L.R., Hochstadt, D., and Penna, "Sleepiness and performance of professional drivers F. "Hours of work, and perceptions of fatigue in a truck simulator--comparisons between day and among truck drivers." (1997). Accident Analysis & night driving." Journal of Sleep Research, 5, 1215. Prevention, 29 (4) 47177. 7. Driver sleepiness-related problems; Driver's health 2. Exceeding HOS (New Zealand) and performance; status; Survey of professional drivers on frequency Survey of truck drivers on current level of fatigue, of prolonged driving and near-miss situations driving and sleep in previous 48 hr; Measures of Hakkanen, H. and Summala, H. (2000). "Driver vehicle control and reaction time in simulator sleepiness-related problems, health status, and pro- Baas, P.H., Charlton, S., and Bastin, G. (2000). "Sur- longed driving among professional heavy-vehicle vey of New Zealand truck driver fatigue and fitness drivers." Transportation Human Factors, 2(2), for duty." 4th International Conference on Fatigue 151171. and Transportation, Fremantle, Western Australia. 8. Impact of local short-haul operations on driver Charlton, S.G. and Baas, P.H. "Fatigue and fitness for fatigue; Measures to assess fatigue, inattention and duty of New Zealand truck drivers." (1998). Road drowsiness; Analysis of critical incidents Safety Research, Policing, Education Conference. Hanowski, R. J., Wierwille, W. W., Gellatly, A. W., Wellington, New Zealand. Vol. 2. 2149. Early, N., and Dingus, T. A. (2000). "Impact of 3. Effects of sleep schedules on performance; Sleep local short-haul operations on driver fatigue." and Lab study; Actigraphic assessment of sleep Department of Transportation Federal Motor Car- and sleep log data for long- and short-haul drivers rier Safety Administration. over an extended period--during on and off duty FMCSA Tech Brief, 2001 (FMCSA-MCRT-01-006). "Impact of local/short-haul operations on driver periods; Performance on psychomotor tasks (e.g., fatigue: Field study." Driving simulator, PVT, Walter Reed Performance 9. Comparison of fatigue (objective and subjective Assessment Battery) measures) and driving performance for single ver- Balkin, T., Thome, D., Sing, H., Thomas, M., Red- sus team drivers on-the-road mond, D., Wesensten, N., Williams, J., Hall, S., and Klauer, S.G., Dingus, T.A., Neale, V.L. and Carroll, Belenky, G. (2000). "Effects of sleep schedules on R.J. (2003). "The effects of fatigue on driver per- commercial motor vehicle driver performance." formance for single and team long-haul truck driv- Department of Transportation, Federal Motor Car- ers." Driving Assessment 2003--The Second rier Safety Administration. International Driving Symposium on Human Fac- FMCSA Tech Brief, 2000/09 (FMCSA-MCRT-00- tors in Driver Assessment, Training and Vehicle 015). "Effects of sleep schedules on commercial Design. Park City, Utah. motor vehicle driver performance--Part 2." 10. Antecedents of fatigue, close calls and crashes 4. Effects of sleeper berth usage on driver fatigue; among CMV drivers; Survey of CMV drivers Driver performance information: steering, lane Morrow, P.C. and Crum, M.R. (2004). "Antecedents departure, braking; Subjective alertness ratings of fatigue, close calls, and crashes among com- Dingus, T., Neale, V., Garness, S., Hanowski, R., mercial motor-vehicle drivers." Journal of Safety Keisler, A., Lee, S., Perez, M., Robinson, G., Belz, Research, 35 (1). S., Casali, J., Pace-Schott, E., Stickgold, R., Hobson, 11. Effects of schedule, loading and recovery on alert- J.A., The Impact of Sleeper Berth Usage on Driver ness and performance (e.g., lane position, speed Fatigue. FMCSA, FMCSA-RT-02-050, Washing- maintenance, PVT) of CMV drivers driving on a ton, DC, November 2001. simulator Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration. "Impact O'Neill, T.R., Krueger, G.P., Van Hemel, S.B., and of sleeper berth usage on driver fatigue." (2002). McGowan, A.L. (1999). "Effects of operating prac- Report Number: FMCSA-RT-02-050. tices on commercial driver alertness." Rep. No.

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54 FHWA-MC-99-140, Office of Motor Carrier and 13. Effects of work-rest schedule on performance, crit- Highway Safety, Federal Highway Administration, ical incidents. Naps and recovery (U.S.-Canada Washington, D.C. Study) O'Neill, T.R., Krueger, G.P., Van Hemel, S.B., Wylie, C.D. "Driver drowsiness, length of prior prin- McGowan, A.L., and Rogers, W.C. (1999). "Effects cipal sleep periods, and naps." (1998). Transporta- of cargo loading and unloading on truck driver tion Development Centre. Report No. TP 13237E. alertness." Transportation Research Record, 1686, Wylie, C.D., Shultz, T., Miller, J.C., and Mitler, M.M. pp. 4248. (1997). "Commercial motor vehicle driver rest peri- O'Neill, T. R., Krueger, G. P., Van Hemel, S. B., and ods and recovery of performance." McGowan, A. L. (1999). "Effects of operating prac- Wylie, C.D., Shultz, T., Miller, J.C., Mitler, M.M., tices on commercial driver alertness." Rep. No. and Mackie, R.R. (1996). Commercial motor vehi- FHWA-MC-99-140, Office of Motor Carrier and cle driver fatigue and alertness study." (Executive Highway Safety, Federal Highway Administration, Summary & Technical Summary). Washington, D.C. Mitler, M.M., Miller, J.C., Lipsitz, J.J., Walsh, J.K., Rogers, W. (2000). "Effects of operating practices on and Wylie, C.D. (1997). "The sleep of long-haul commercial driver alertness." Proceeding of the truck drivers." New England Journal of Medicine, Conference Traffic Safety on Two Continents held 337(11). in Malmo, Sweden, September 2022, 1999. Freund, D. and Vespa, S. (1997) "U.S./Canada study Tech Brief (1999) (FHWA-MCRT-99-008) "Effects of of commercial motor vehicle driver fatigue and operating practices on commercial driver alertness." alertness." Proceedings of the XIIIth World Meet- 12. Effect of sleep deprivation on performance; Effect ing of the International Road Federation, Toronto, of four work-rest schedules (2 complying with HOS Ontario. June 1620, 1997. regulations; two alternative schedules) in simulator and on-road (Australia) Williamson, A., Feyer, A.M., Friswell, R., and Finlay- Brown, S. (2000). "Demonstration project for fatigue Secondary Sources management programs in the road transport indus- try: Summary of findings." The selection criteria for the secondary references were Williamson, A., Feyer, A., and Friswell, R. (1996). that they were relevant to issues of fatigue and truck driv- "The impact of work practices on fatigue in long ing but not necessarily involving actual driving by truck distance truck drivers." Accident Analysis & Pre- drivers or typical truck driver schedules. These are listed vention, Vol. 28, No. 6, 709719. on page 99.