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99 improvement in dependent measures of driver performance recommendations. Chapter 3 presents the study methodology on trips following the time off. The study involved 25 of the and data collections methods. Chapter 4 presents the detailed 40 drivers who participated in the two Canadian observa- results. Chapter 5 provides an overview of the results and the tional conditions of the joint study by Canada and the United study's conclusions and recommendations. For the amount of States known as DFAS. Field data were collected from sleep and the 4 to 5 days of driving observed for each driver 55 trips, in addition to those of the DFAS, and resulted in five in this study, it was found that the strongest and most consis- new observational conditions that spanned a maximum of tent factor influencing driver fatigue and alertness was time 8 workdays, nominally with 12 hr, 36 hr, and 48 hr of time of day; drowsiness, as observed in video recordings of the off after the fourth workday. Three conditions included the driver's face, was markedly greater during night driving than 36-hr off-duty period, of which two had drivers do 4 more during daytime driving. The number of hours of driving (time workdays following time off while the third had drivers do on task) and cumulative number of days were not strong or 1 more workday. Two conditions included 12 hr and 48 hr of consistent predictors of observed fatigue. Numerous other time off and these had 1 more workday follow the time off. findings are provided relating to scientific methodologies and The data collection equipment and procedures were similar fatigue countermeasure concepts. to those of the DFAS study and were described in detail in the final report issued on that project. Measures, which were identical to those used in the DFAS, included EEG, face SECONDARY SOURCES video recordings, vehicle lane tracking, and computerized Abrams, C., Schultz, T., and Wylie, C.D. (1997). "Commer- surrogate performance tests. Because of the smaller number of cial motor vehicle driver fatigue, alertness, and countermea- drivers who participated in this "recovery" study by compari- sures survey." U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal son with the DFAS, the statistical tests did not have the same Highway Administration. No. FHWA-MC-99-067. power to detect effects. For 1 workday off (i.e., 36 hr), there was (1) no objective evidence of driver recovery; (2) some Akerstedt et al. (2000). "Sleepiness and days of recovery." improvement in driver subjective feeling reflected by self- rating, although this could be a reflection of driver expecta- Anund, A., Kecklund, G., and Larsson, J. (2002). "Fatigued tion of recovery; (3) for day-start drivers, some increase in the amount of sleep obtained during time off; and (4) for drivers in focus." Swedish National Road Administration. night-start drivers, interference with work-rest patterns and less sleep during time off. For 2 workdays off (i.e., 48 hr) Apparies et al. (1998). "A psychophysiological investigation there was no objective evidence of driver recovery although of the effects of driving longer-combination vehicles." the statistical power of the tests to detect recovery effects was not high because of random variation associated with the American Trucking Associations, Inc. smaller number of drivers. SB: TRB-TRIS. TI: Eye-Activity Measures of Fatigue and Napping as a Wylie, C.D., Shultz, T., Miller, J.C., Mitler, M.M., and Fatigue Countermeasure. Mackie, R.R. "Commercial motor vehicle driver fatigue SO: 1999/01. 9709-9802 pp.164 (Figs., Tabs., Refs., 11 App.) and alertness study." PY: 1999. This is the full final report on the largest and most com- RN: Report Number: FHWA-MC-99-028; Report Number: prehensive over-the-road study of CMV driver fatigue ever Final Report; Contract/Grant Number: DTFH61-96-00022. conducted in North America. The data collection involved AB: This study investigated (1) the potential use of an eye 80 drivers in the United States and Canada who were moni- tracking system for detecting reduced driver alertness and tored over a period of 16 weeks. A number of work-related (2) the impact of prophylactic napping on driver performance factors thought to influence the development of fatigue, loss and alertness. The study used traditional behavioral and phys- of alertness, and degraded performance in CMV drivers was iological measures of alertness. In addition, an unobtrusive studied within an operational setting of real-life, revenue- eye tracker attached to the simulator structure was used to generating trips. These included the amount of time spent driv- measure eye and eyelid behavior. The results showed clear ing during a work period, the number of consecutive days of time-of-day and time on task effects for the following eye driving, the time of day when driving took place, and sched- closure measures: partial closures during fixations, speed of ule regularity. In Chapter 1, the reader is provided with the slow eyelid closure (SEC), blink duration, and blink frequency. background to the study as well as the study's overall objec- Eye closures during fixations exhibited the following alert- tives and the approach used in their attainment. Chapter 2 ness monitoring characteristics: (1) the cyclic phases of a presents a detailed literature review on driver fatigue and its driver experiencing brief lapses of alertness and recovery, (2) a measurement, as well as the involvement of fatigue in crashes continuous decline ultimately leading to an off-road simula- that was conducted in preparation for the study and consid- tor crash, (3) an early warning potential of 10 min or more, ered in the formulation of the study's own conclusions and (4) a dramatic decline in the measure beginning 2 to 3 min

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100 before an off-road simulator crash. SEC events and blink TI: Driver Fatigue: Is Something Missing? duration showed sustained increases with time on task and CA: University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA. time of day. A preliminary algorithm for detecting level of SO: Conference Title: Driving Assessment 2003: The Second alertness was developed. This algorithm uses the eye closure International Driving Symposium on Human Factors in Driver measure in a way that includes partial eye closures during fix- Assessment, Training and Vehicle Design. Location: Park ations, blink frequency, blink duration, and speed of eye clo- City, Utah. Sponsored by: FHWA; FMCSA; Honda R&D sure effects. The 3-hr afternoon nap increased the subjects' Americas, Inc.; Motorola; NHTSA; Univ. of Iowa; Nissan nighttime alertness and improved driving performance. Ben- Technical Center North America; Univ. of Minnesota; Vir- eficial effects of the afternoon nap on nighttime driving per- ginia Tech; Seeing Machines--Australia; UMTRI; TTI; Univ. formance included significantly fewer crashes, shorter run of Leeds, UK; Human Factors and Ergonomics Society; and completion times, and smaller standard deviations of lane TRB. Held: 20030721-20030724. 2003. pp. 138142 (Refs.) position. The results provide evidence that the 3-hr afternoon PY: 2003. nap was effective in reducing sleepiness levels during the AB: Drowsiness and fatigue are serious problems in all trans- following night and suggest that prophylactic naps may be portation systems. One persistent issue is the lack of an more beneficial than recuperative naps during all-night driv- agreed definition of these respective energetic states. This ing situations. paper reviews the theoretical approaches (cognitive versus AN: 00763223 physiological) framing the driver fatigue problem. Known contributing factors to drowsiness include sleep debt, circa- Balkin et al. (2000). "Effects of sleep schedules on commer- dian rhythm, and shift work. However, it is also suggested cial motor vehicle driver performance." that certain inherent physiological reactions engaged in responses to motion itself represent a previously unrecog- Brice, C. and Smith, A. nized but significant source of fatigue. The impact of this fac- SB: IRRD-OECD. tor is confirmed through comparisons of studies that either TI: Caffeine and fatigue: mental performance and driving. have or have not included prolonged motion. SO: International Conference on Fatigue and Transportation, AN: 00970486 4th, 2000, Fremantle, Western Australia. 2000. 32 p. (12 Refs.) PY: 2000. Brown, W.J. AB: The majority of studies to date have investigated the SB: IRRD-OECD. behavioural effects of caffeine in laboratory experiments TI: Interaction Between Extended Duty Hours and Circadian using artificial tasks. It is now important to ask whether sim- Rhythms: Consequent Effects on Long-Haul Driver Alert- ilar effects are observed in simulations of real-life activities, ness and Performance. such as driving, and to consider whether consumption of caf- SO: Proceedings of the 29th Annual Meeting of the Canadian feine can reduce fatigue over long time periods, for instance Transportation Research Forum: Going the Distance, Victo- over the working day. A number of studies show that caffeine ria, British Columbia, May 1518, 1994. pp. 532547. can improve driving performance of fatigued drivers. In the PY: 1994. current study 3mg/kg caffeine was found to improve steering AB: A major Canadian rail disaster in 1986 resulted in the accuracy in drivers carrying out a 1-hr simulated drive. In loss of 26 lives and $30 million in property damage. The addition, measures of mood and performance of artificial tasks investigation demonstrated that severe disruptions to the were recorded in this study and these also showed the benefits engineer's circadian rhythms caused by erratic schedules and of consuming caffeine. These findings suggest that changes in extended duty hours impaired engineer performance result- the laboratory may reflect a general benefit of caffeine that is ing in the rail disaster. This finding is supported by GAO also observed in real-1ife situations. Further evidence from studies (1992, 1993) on rail safety which showed similar Smith examining the effects of caffeine on performance effi- results. The purpose of the present study is to determine ciency over the working day has shown the benefits of caf- whether the work-rest patterns of long-haul truck drivers are feine consumption on measures of sustained attention and similar to those of train engineers and the consequences for alertness. Furthermore, this study also provided evidence to safety in the trucking industry. For the covering abstract of suggest that caffeine is often consumed when alertness is low this conference, see IRRD number 863285. to maximize alertness and performance efficiency. The impli- cations of these findings in terms of road safety are also con- Brown, J., Horberry, T., and Anderson, J. sidered. (a) For the covering entry of this conference, see SB: IRRD-OECD. ITRD abstract no. E204477. TI: Investigation of the effects of driver distraction. AN: E204481 SO: Road Safety Research, Policing and Education Confer- ence, 2003, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. 2003. Brill, J.C., Hancock, P.A., and Gilson, R.D. 97-105 (Vol. 2) (38 Refs.) SB: TRB-TRIS. PY: 2003.

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101 RN: 0 73105 395 8. DeValck, E. and Cluydts, R. AB: The MUARC advanced car driving simulator was used SB: TRB-TRIS. to undertake a study that examined the effects of distraction TI: Slow-Release Caffeine as a Countermeasure to Driver upon driving performance for drivers in three age groups. Sleepiness Induced by Partial Sleep Deprivation. There were two in-car distractions: operating the car audio SO: Journal of Sleep Research. 2001. 10(3) pp. 203209 (Refs.) system and conducting a simulated hands-free mobile phone PY: 2001. conversation. The study employed a hazard perception task, AB: This paper studied the effect of partial sleep deprivation whereby the effects of distraction were assessed in terms of (PSD) on driving abilities, as measured with a driving simula- drivers' reactions to pedestrians and other hazards in the tor, and the value of slow-release caffeine as a countermeasure roadway. Older drivers (over 60 years old) drove more slowly to the expected performance decrements. Twelve subjects when they were distracted by the audio system and in the (20 to 25 years old) underwent four experimental conditions: complex driving environment. Younger people (18 to 25 years 4.5 or 7.5 hr time in bed, both with 300 mg slow-release caf- old) maintained a more constant speed compared with mid- feine or placebo. Driving performance was measured twice by dle aged (30 to 45 years old) and older drivers (over 60). a 45-min driving task on a simulator. Subjective sleepiness/ Fatigue caused by loss of sleep the night before the test or alertness and mood were assessed 4 times by the Stanford by the driving task itself did not affect driver performance. Sleepiness Scale and the Profile of Mood States. After 4.5 hr, The authors concluded that the in-vehicle tasks of interact- as compared with 7.5 hr time in bed, drifting and speed devi- ing with the audio system and conducting a simulated hands- ation were higher, but only the effect on the first variable free mobile phone conversation do impair several aspects of reached significance. In the placebo condition at 13 hr, acci- driving performance. (a) For the covering entry of this con- dent liability increased after PSD. Subjective sleepiness was ference, see ITRD abstract no. E210298. higher in the 4.5 hr time in bed group. Findings suggest that AN: E210429 a lack of sleep can lead to a significant driving performance impairment, and that slow-release caffeine can serve as a Charlton, S.G. and Isler, R.B. valuable countermeasure to the performance decrements. SB: IRRD-OECD. AN: 00932761 TI: Road Safety Research at Waikato University in New Zealand. Desmond, P.A., Hancock, P.A., and Monette, J.L. SO: International Conference on Traffic and Transport Psy- SB: TRB-TRIS. chology--ICTTP 2000, Held 47 September 2000, Berne, TI: Fatigue and Automation-Induced Impairments in Simu- Switzerland--Keynotes, Symposia, Thematic Sessions, lated Driving Performance. Workshops, Posters, List of Participants and Word Viewer-- SO: Transportation Research Record. 1998. (1628) pp. 814 CD ROM. 2001. (12 Refs.) PY: 2001. (4 Fig., 24 Ref.) AB: The University of Waikato's Traffic and Road Safety PY: 1998. Research Group (TARS) was founded in 1993. Since then, RN: 0309064732. the capabilities and research output of TARS have grown AB: A driving simulator study investigated the effect of steadily, developing good relationships with industry, gov- automation of the driving task on performance under fatigu- ernmental, and regulatory end users in the transport and road ing driving conditions. In the study, drivers performed both a safety communities. Currently, in a government-funded proj- manual drive, in which they had full control over the driving ect, TARS researchers are employing advanced driving sim- task, and an automated drive, in which the vehicle was con- ulator techniques and instrumented vehicles in order to develop trolled by an automated driving system. During both drives, human factors models characterizing driving performance three perturbing events occurred at early, intermediate, and and decisionmaking in various driving situations. Fatigue and late phases in the drives: in the automated drive, a failure in Fitness for Duty in New Zealand Truck Drivers is another automation caused the vehicle to drift toward the edge of the current project funded by Road Safety Trust. Using a portable road; in the manual drive, wind gusts resulted in the vehicle driving simulator installed in a caravan, volunteer truck driv- drifting in the same direction and magnitude as the "drifts" in ers are asked to complete a brief survey and take a diagnos- the automated drive. Following automation failure, drivers tic driving fatigue test at rest stops, depots, and cargo terminals were forced to control the vehicle manually until the system throughout the day and night. Another TARS project involves became operational again. Drivers' lateral control of the vehi- teaching novice drivers appropriate eye scanning while nego- cle was assessed during three phases of manual control in tiating curves. By using sophisticated eye tracking equip- both drives. The results indicate that performance recovery ment, TARS researchers can detect and correct inappropriate was better when drivers had full manual control of the vehi- looking behaviours in a safe environment of a driving simu- cle throughout the drive, rather than when drivers were forced lator and in real traffic situations. For the covering abstract, to drive manually following automation failure. Drivers also see ITRD E113725. experienced increased tiredness, and physical and perceptual AN: E114139 fatigue symptoms following both drives. The findings have

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102 important implications for the design of intelligent trans- ity of the research has focused on the development of tech- portation systems. Systems that reduce the driver's percep- nology, that is, the construction of sensitive and reliable sen- tions of task demands of driving are likely to undermobilize sor apparatus or associated algorithms, or both. Few studies effort in fatigued drivers. Thus, the results strongly support have been concerned with those driver-system interactions the contention that human-centered transportation strategies, issues underlying this category of technology. Eighteen male in which the driver is involved in the driving task, are supe- participants took part in a repeated measure design in which rior to total automation. they performed simulated journeys with and without impair- AN: 00755015 ment feedback. The diagnosis and assessment of impairment were based on the quality of vehicular control. Impairment Desmond, P. "Efficiency of vehicle-based data to predict lane feedback was presented in the form of two interface designs, departure arising from loss of alertness due to fatigue." (1996). one providing three levels of feedback and another capable Proceedings of the 40th Annual Conference of the Associa- of nine levels of feedback. The results indicated that impair- tion for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine. October ment feedback counteracts the characteristic degradation of 79, 36376. driving performance due to time on task with respect to vehic- ular control. However, the presence of feedback (in either Fairclough, S.H. and Graham, R. form) failed to influence participants' decision to discontinue SB: TRB-TRIS. the journey. In addition, impairment feedback failed to sig- TI: Impairment of Driving Performance Caused by Sleep nificantly influence psychophysiological effort, subjective Deprivation or Alcohol: A Comparative Study. fatigue, or subjective mental workload. The authors also dis- SO: Human Factors. 1999/03. 41(1) pp. 118128 (2 Fig., 2 cuss the implications of these finding for future research and Tab., 27 Ref.) development. PY: 1999. AN: 00812272 RN: Contract/Grant Number: TR 1047. Fatigue Expert Group. AB: This study assessed the relative impact of partial sleep SB: IRRD-OECD. deprivation (restriction to 4 hr of sleep before testing) and full TI: Fatigue Expert Group: options for regulatory approach to sleep deprivation (no sleep on the night before testing) on fatigue in drivers of heavy vehicles in Australia and New 2 hr of simulated driving, compared with an alcohol treat- Zealand. ment (mean BAC = 0.07%). Data were collected from SO: Report. 2001/02. (CR 202) 70 p. 64 male participants on the primary driving task, psychophysi- PY: 2001. ology (0.1 Hz heart rate variability), and subjective self- RN: 0-642-54478-6. assessment. Results revealed that the full sleep deprivation AB: This report was commissioned jointly by the National group and alcohol group exhibited a safety-critical decline in Road Transport Commission of Australia, the Australian lane-keeping performance. The partial sleep deprivation Transport Safety Bureau, and the New Zealand Land Trans- group exhibited only noncritical alterations in primary task port Safety Authority. The fatigue expert group comprised performance. Both sleep-deprived groups were characterized leading Australian and New Zealand experts in sleep, shift by subjective discomfort and an awareness of reduced per- work, and road safety who collaborated with the participat- formance capability. These subjective symptoms were not ing agencies and industry representatives to construct a set of perceived by the alcohol group. The findings are discussed evidence-based design principles for future fatigue regula- with reference to the development of systems for the online tory options. The group considered that the management of diagnosis of driver fatigue. Potential applications of this driver fatigue is not a matter for operators and drivers alone, research include the formulation of performance criteria to be and emphasised the requirements and practices of others in encompassed within a driver impairment monitoring system. the transport supply chain. The chain of responsibility provi- AN: 00765019 sions in road transport legislation are designed to highlight that on-road performance is closely related to the decisions Fairclough, S.H. and van Winsum, W. made by customers, consignors and loaders. The expert group SB: TRB-TRIS. was conscious of the need to provide a flexible and practica- TI: The Influence of Impairment Feedback on Driver Behav- ble framework in which fatigue could be actively managed ior: A Simulator Study. by all those who are part of the supply chain. The group SO: Transportation Human Factors. 2000. 2(3) pp. 229246 agreed on the following principles for designing better regu- (4 Fig., 4 Tab., 32 Ref..) lations: provision for minimum sleep periods, the opportunity PY: 2000. for sleep and time of day influences; taking account of the AB: A variety of impairment-detection technologies have cumulative nature of fatigue and sleep loss; taking account of been developed as potential countermeasures to the degrada- the effect of night work on driving performance and both qual- tion of driving performance due to the influence of fatigue, ity and quantify of sleep; taking account of duration of work- alcohol, drugs, emotional stress, and distraction. The major- ing time; and provision of short breaks within working time.

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103 The group considered that any policy approach to the man- where driving exceeded 8 hr since the driver's last compul- agement of fatigue in drivers of heavy vehicles must address sory 10-hr off-duty period (as recorded in the log book). these factors and proposed a possible model for the applica- There were no other significant differences between the two tion of these design principles. groups with respect to other time intervals related to driving AN: E204309 habits. There was a significant difference between the age distribution of the crash and control drivers with the crash driv- Filiatrault, D.D., Vavrik, J., Kuzeljevic, B., and Cooper, P.J. ers generally being younger. (a) For the covering abstract of SB: TRB-TRIS. this conference, see IRRD abstract no. 861222. TI: The Effect of Rest-Schedule Orientation on Sleep Qual- AN: 861294 ity of Commercial Drivers. SO: Conference Title: 43rd Annual Proceedings of the Asso- Gale, A.G.(Ed.), Desmond, P.A., and Matthews, G. ciation for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine. Loca- SB: IRRD-OECD. tion: Barcelona (Sitges), Spain. Sponsored by: Association for TI: The effects of motivational and perceptual-based inter- the Advancement of Automotive Medicine. Held: 19990920 ventions on fatigue-related decrements in simulated driving 19990921. Association for the Advancement of Auto Medi- performance. cine Proc. 1999. pp. 329343 (1 Fig., 7 Tab., Refs.) SO: Vision in Vehicles--VII. 1999. pp. 14956 (8 Refs.) PY: 1999. PY: 1999. AB: A study was conducted to examine the relationship RN: 0-08-043671-4. between sleep quality and how CMV drivers balanced conflict AB: The aim of this study is to explore the differing predic- when the need to rest interfered with their ability to maintain tions which may be derived from motivational and feedback tight delivery schedules. Face-to-face interviews were con- hypotheses concerning fatigue-related decrements. The study ducted with 188 CMV drivers to collect physiological data explores these hypotheses by examining the effects of three and self-reported measures. Multivariate linear regression types of interventions on drivers' lateral control: motiva- models were developed to analyze relationships between tional, when subjects were presented with instruction that driv- sleep quality, sleep quantity, symptoms of obstructive sleep ing skill was being measured; enhanced feedback, when the apnea, and how schedule-based priorities were established. A simulated road surface changed colour if the car deviated significant correlation was found between sleep quality and from a central lane; and reduced feedback, when the simu- how preference was given by CMV drivers, when symptoms lated environment was presented as being the same colour as of fatigue were detected, to balance conflict between the need the road surface. Driving performance was measured under to rest and the real or perceived duty to comply with externally- conditions of task-induced fatigue and on a control drive. The imposed schedule demands. findings of the study showed that the control drive produced AN: 00784208 greater subjective fatigue than the fatigue drive itself, princi- pally categorised as heightened boredom or apathy. The find- Frith, W.J. ings have implications for in-vehicle countermeasures to SB: IRRD-OECD. fatigue. (a) For the covering abstract, see ITRD E106152. TI: A Case Control Study of Heavy Vehicle Drivers' Work- AN: E106168 ing Time and Safety. SO: 17TH ARRB Conference, Gold Coast, Queensland, Gale, A.G.(Ed.), Desmond, P.A. and Matthews, G. 1519 August 1994; Proceedings; Volume 17, Part 5. 1994. SB: IRRD-OECD. pp. 1730 (13 Refs.) TI: Task-induced fatigue effects on simulated driving PY: 1994. performance. AB: In New Zealand, heavy vehicle drivers carry log books SO: Vision in Vehicles--VI. 1998. pp. 11522 (12 Refs.) in which details of their driving hours must be recorded. It PY: 1998. was decided to use this information to carry out a study on the RN: 0-08-43579-3. risk of crash with respect to driving hours and other time AB: Resource theories and dynamic models of stress and sus- intervals related to the drivers' working lives. In the study, a tained performance make conflicting predictions concerning case group of heavy vehicles involved in crashes (for which the nature of the interaction between fatigue effects and task details of drivers' hours were known from their log books) demands. Resource theories suggest that fatigue may deplete was compared with a control group of vehicles. The control attentional resources, so that detrimental effects of fatigue on group was selected by police going to the scenes of crashes performance are exacerbated when the task is highly demand- on an anniversary of the crash, at the same time of day as the ing. Matthews et al. (1996) suggest that a variety of stress crash, and stopping a heavy vehicle. Where possible a vehi- states may disrupt matching of effort to task demands. If so, cle was selected which was travelling in the same direction the fatigued driver may fail to mobilize effort effectively as the crash vehicle and which was of a similar configuration. when the task appears undemanding. These two conflicting Evidence was found of an increased crash risk in those cases hypotheses were tested with the Aston Driver Simulator, a

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104 microcomputer-controlled fixed-base simulator of moderate Grunstein, R.R., Desai, A., Marks, G., Williams, A. and fidelity (see Matthews et al., 1996). In the present study, driv- Barlett, D. (Woolcock Institute of Medical Research), and ers performed both a fatiguing drive, in the first part of Jankelson, D. (St. Vincent's Clinic. Sleep Disorders Service) which a fatigue-induction procedure was added to the pri- SB: IRRD-OECD. mary task of driving and a control drive with no additional TI: The interaction of mild obstructive sleep apnea, sleep fatigue-induction procedure. The effects of the fatigue manip- deprivation, and circadian factors in driving risk. ulation on drivers' subjective states were assessed by a selec- SO: Road Safety Research, Policing and Education Confer- tion of subjective measures. For the covering abstract, see ence, 2003, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. 2003. pp. IRRD E102207. 30914 (Vol. 2) (5 Refs.) AN: E102219 PY: 2003. RN: 0 73105 395 8. Prepared by Margaret Gordetsky. AB: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a breathing disorder SB: TRB-TRIS. occurring in sleep, with important nighttime and daytime TI: Australian Studies Urge Flexible Driving Hours, Fixed consequences. This study primarily sought to examine the Rest Periods. added effect of fatigue promoting factors (sleep deprivation SO: Transport Topics. 2001/03/19. and time of day) on driving performance and cognitive func- PY: 2001. tion in mild OSA patients. Currently licensed male drivers AB: Subtitle: Several Agencies Work on Fatigue-Fighting (25 to 55 years old) underwent overnight polysomnography Policies. to identify the presence of mild OSA. Clear effects of sleep AN: 00907369. deprivation and time of day were found in all subjects but no significant group differences were found. Although mild Gouin, V., Sagot, J.C. and Roussel, B. OSA drivers were not different to the control group in their SB: TRB-TRIS. response to sleep deprivation or time of day influences, they TI: Train Drivers' Fatigue During a Seven Hour Daytime were less aware of their impairment due to sleep deprivation. In one reaction time task, mild OSA drivers showed greater Trip. In: Engineering Psychology and Cognitive Ergonom- impairment than controls at certain times of the day after sleep ics. Aerospace and Transportation Systems. deprivation. (a) For the covering entry of this conference, see CA: Ashgate Publishing Company, 131 Main Street, Bur- ITRD abstract no. E210298. lington, VT. AN: E210461 SO: Conference Title: Third International Conference on Engineering Psychology and Cognitive Ergonomics. Aero- Haile, J. space and Transportation Systems. Location: Edinburgh, SB: IRRD-OECD. Scotland. Sponsored by: College of Aeronautics, Cranfield TI: A visit to Canadian Pacific Railways, 2527 Septem- University. Held: 2000102520001027. 2001. pp. 455462 ber 1995. (4 Fig., Refs.) SO: Fatigue and Accidents: A Multi-Modal Approach. Pro- PY: 2001. ceedings of a Conference Organised by the Parliamentary RN: 0754613372. Advisory Council for Transport Safety, Held March 1996, AB: A continuous daytime driving period of 7 hr is common London, UK. 1996/03. pp. 99102. on French railways. A question often arises of the fatigue felt PY: 1996. by drivers during such long driving times. Described in this AB: The CANALERT project, a study of Canadian freight paper is the methodology and given is a part of the results train drivers and their working hours, is described. Forty vol- obtained during the Paris-Nice line, 6 hr 40 min of driving. unteer drivers were known to be on duty for up to 18 hr (usu- The results focus on the psychological and behavioral aspects ally 12 to 16 hr) with up to a 4-hr rest period mid shift. A of the high speed, long driving task. No feeling of fatigue is 1 day on, 1 day off shift pattern was worked. There was also a shown as expressed by the drivers in subjective evaluation. maximum driving mileage per month. The study was under- Yet, the behavioral adjustments observed clearly indicate that taken with the removal of the previous blame culture sur- the task took its toll. The train drivers' experience makes these rounding individuals who had fallen asleep. These drivers adjustments possible. were monitored using sleep tracking diaries, 24-hr activity AN: 00934408 monitoring, questionnaires, and human physiology monitor- ing. New measures tested included rostering to the individ- Grunstein, R.R., Desai, A., Marks, G., Barlett, D., and ual's body clock by restricting return journey start times, Jankelson, D. "The interaction of mild obstructive sleep training staff and families in the importance of the body clock, apnea, sleep deprivation, and circadian factors in driving improvement of the bunk house facilities, allowing short risk." (2003). Road Safety Research, Policing and Education 30-min naps during excessively long shifts, and allowing driv- Conference, pp. 30914 (Vol. 2) (5 Refs.) ers to listen to music through headphones. The drivers said

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105 they felt fitter after the implementation of the new measures. way loop without sleep deprivation. Graphs are presented The relevance of the study to UK rail services is discussed. which show changes in drowsiness with time. For the cover- For the covering abstract, see ITRD E111306. ing abstract, see IRRD 876074. AN: E111310 AN: 876092 Hancock, P.A. (Ed.), Desmond, P.A. (Ed.), Brookhuis, K.A., Hartley, L.R. and DeWaard, D. SB: TRB-TRIS. SB: IRRD-OECD. TI: Beyond One Size Fits All Hours of Service Regulations. TI: Assessment of drivers' workload: performance and sub- CA: American Trucking Associations, Inc, Alexandria, VA. jective and physiological indexes. SO: Conference Title: Managing Fatigue in Transportation. SO: Stress, Workload and Fatigue. 2001. pp. 32133. Location: Tampa, Florida. Sponsored by: American Trucking PY: 2001. Associations, Association of American Railroads, Federal RN: 0-8058-3178-9. Highway Administration, Federal Railroad Administration, AB: There are many reasons that the measurement of driv- National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, and National ers' mental workload has great interest these days and will Transportation Safety Board. Held: 1997042919970430. increasingly enjoy this status in the near future. Accidents 1998. pp. 927 (9 Tab., Refs.) are numerous, seemingly ineradicable, very costly, and largely PY: 1998. attributable to the human factor. Human errors in the sense RN: 0865875162. of imperfect perception, insufficient attention, and inade- AB: Increasing attention, both nationally and internationally, quate information processing are the major causes of the bulk is being paid to the management of fatigue among all classes of the accidents on the road (Smiley and Brookhuis 1987, of drivers but especially among truck and bus drivers. This Treat et al. 1977). Although both low and high mental work- paper is divided into two parts. The first part describes research loads are undoubtedly basic conditions for these errors, an into the question of whether the introduction of driving and exact relation between mental workload and accident causa- related working hours regulations to Western Australia (WA) tion is not easily established or easily measured in practice. would be beneficial. To do so, research considered the impact The measurement of drivers' mental workload offers oppor- of the proposed regulations on the WA industry; the success tunities and pitfalls, as illustrated in De Waard's model of of enforcing the regulations in other states; the impact of driver performance, demands, and mental workload (De Waard fatigue on drivers in WA versus the states regulating driving 1996). Although stability of primary measures of driving per- hours; and the effectiveness of self regulation in WA as com- formance over time is what the drivers' goals are, the condi- pared with enforcement in other states. It was concluded that tions are variable and sometimes strongly demanding and there is no evidence that the introduction of prescriptive driv- require effort in variable "amounts" that at times are beyond ing hours into WA would benefit the community, and quite capacity. The accident proneness that follows such condi- possibly might worsen the problem of fatigue. The second tions is the (for the time being irrefutable) rationale for the part of the paper describes the WA Government response to measurement of drivers' mental workload. For the covering the research. abstract, see ITRD E108674. AN: 00789167 AN: E108678 Hartley, L. Hartley, L.R. (Ed.) and Richardson, J.H. SB: IRRD-OECD. SB: IRRD-OECD. TI: Australian initiatives in managing fatigue in transportation. TI: The Development of a Driver Alertness Monitoring SO: Insurance Commission of Western Australia Conference System. on Road Safety, 1999, Perth, Western Australia. 1999/11. SO: Fatigue and Driving. Driver Impairment, Driver Fatigue pp. 12439 (5 Refs.) and Driving Simulation. 1995. pp. 21929 (7 Refs.) PY: 1999. PY: 1995. AB: In most developed jurisdictions, fatigue has been RN: 0-7484-0262-4. addressed by restricting HOS and mandating time off work. AB: This chapter describes the monitoring of driver alertness In most of Australia, under the Truck Driving Hours Regula- as part of a project to develop a reliable in-vehicle warning tions, a driver cannot drive more than 12 hr or work more than system which could be incorporated into an intelligent vehi- 14 hr in each 24-hr period, with minimum rest requirements cle highway system. Driver fatigue was measured in a series during that period. No more than 72 hr driving or working is of trials. The first used a laboratory simulator to collect psy- possible in a 7-day period, and one continuous 24-hr rest break chophysiological data from drivers experiencing levels of must be taken away from the truck during this time. There are fatigue that could not be induced on public roads. The second a number of criticisms of this approach including its lack of trial involved a real driving task on a private airfield with flexibility, failure to consider the circadian rhythms of drivers, sleep-deprived drivers. The final trial used a 150-mi motor- poor compliance because of the absence of incentives to do

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106 so, poor enforcement because of the difficulties of doing so, ness; these effects lasted for the 1 hr duration of driving after and rigid restriction on HOS may prevent drivers reaching treatment. The findings with caffeine were consistent across better rest facilities only a short distance away. Improved subjects, whereas those for nap were less so, depending on the management of fatigue must address these issues. Two Aus- ability to nap (most subjects napped). Eye movements (e.g. eye tralian alternatives to the traditional HOS regime are described. rolling) were unreliable in determining sleepiness and inferior (a) For the covering entry of this conference, see ITRD to the other measures. Changes in driving performance and abstract no. E205827. EEG were closely linked, but there was a small time lag AN: E205836 between the two. Subjects were aware of their deteriorating EEG state of alertness almost "on line." Self-knowledge is a Haworth, N. good guide to real sleepiness, but subjects may not realise that SB: IRRD-OECD. sleepiness portends sleep, which may descend rapidly there- TI: Does Regulating Driving Hours Improve Safety? after. If one has to drive whilst sleepy, then a break with cof- SO: International Conference on Fatigue and Transportation, fee or a nap can be beneficial, but only for a while. 3rd, 1998, Fremantle, Western Australia. 1998. 10 p. (17 Refs.) PY: 1998. Hurwitz, J.B. RN: 0-86905-607-7. SB: IRRD-OECD. AB: Many of those who argue for regulations governing driv- TI: Individual differences in driver risk acceptance during ing hours do so on the basis of ensuring safety standards. sleep deprivation. The underlying assumption is that limiting the hours of driv- SO: International Conference on Traffic and Transport Psy- ing per day and per session results in drivers who are more chology--ICTTP 2000, Held 47 September 2000, Berne, alert and are, therefore, involved in fewer crashes. While this Switzerland--Keynotes, Symposia, Thematic Sessions, Work- assumption has mass appeal, there is little rigorous support shops, Posters, List of Participants and Word Viewer--CD for it. This paper examines the difficulties involved in assess- ROM. 2001. (26 Refs.) ing whether regulating driving hours improves safety. The PY: 2001. issues and drawbacks involved in comparing the safety per- AB: This paper investigates the role of decisional processes in formance of road transport in currently regulated and unreg- fatigued drivers. Test subjects were asked to perform a simple ulated areas are discussed. The characteristics and information computer-based driving task during a period of sleep depriva- requirements of a model which could be developed to test the tion. Individual performance was simulated using a mathe- safety (and cost) implications of having no driving hours reg- matical model of driver risk acceptance. Drivers accept risk ulations or different types of regulations are proposed. (a) For by initiating manoeuvres before having sufficient information the covering entry of this conference, see IRRD abstract no. to determine the consequences. The results suggested that the 895120. modeling used could be employed to detect changes in risk AN: 895129 taking resulting from sleep loss, and could therefore be useful in developing in-car driver support systems to include coun- Horne, J.A. and Reyner, L.A. termeasures. For the covering abstract, see ITRD E113725. SB: IRRD-OECD. AN: E113860 TI: Falling Asleep at the Wheel. SO: TRL Report. 1995. (168) 26 p. Janssen, W. PY: 1995. SB: IRRD-OECD. AB: Certain practical measures to counteract sleepiness under TI: How to improve a safe and sustainable driver behav- monotonous driving conditions, have been evaluated. Three iour--driver's fatigue? treatments were given separately during a 30-min rest period SO: Safe and Sustainable Transport. A Matter of Quality between two, 1-hr monotonous drives: a placebo (decaf- Assurance. 2003. pp. 10718 (10 Refs.) feinated coffee), a nap (less than 15 min), and 150-mg caf- PY: 2003. feine (in decaffeinated coffee). Ten subjects (experienced RN: 92-821-1303-5. drivers) underwent all conditions in a balanced design. Sleep AB: Reducing the number of accidents that are caused by was restricted to 5 hr the night before each treatment condi- drowsiness or fatigue could be achieved by applying differ- tion. An interactive and instrumented driving simulator emu- ent strategies. This paper focuses on the on-line, real-time lated monotonous driving. Subjects drove between 14:00h detection of deteriorating driver state and driving behaviour, and 16:30h. Major and minor lane deviations were identified. and on the question what should be done after this has been Subjects reported their subjective alert/sleepiness levels, detected. It reports three studies performed in the TNO driv- and recordings were made of brain (EEG) and eye activities ing simulator. The first one leads to the conclusion that an in- (EOGs). Video records showed facial/postural changes. Both vehicle monitoring device is best based on measures of caffeine and a nap significantly reduced driving impairments, steering activity, to which the registration of not keeping to subjective sleepiness, and EEG activities indicative of drowsi- one's lane boundary could be added. The second study points

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107 to the importance of certain personality attributes that deter- a 6-hr driving period. The mechanical parameter thresholds mine who is a drowsiness-prone driver. The third study of the vehicle are discussed. (a) For the covering abstract of demonstrates that an alertness maintenance device (game- the conference, see IRRD 894848. box) can have positive effects on the onset of drowsiness and AN: 894888 on the occurrence of critical events that it may cause. Alto- gether the results lead to a positive conclusion with respect to King, D.J., Mumford, D.K., and Siegmund, G.P.S.B. the possibility of implementing a strategy that focuses on the IRRD-OECD. on-line detection of drowsiness and its consequences. Behav- TI: An algorithm for detecting heavy-truck driver fatigue ioural adaptation from the side of the relevant drivers to this from steering wheel motion. strategy, however, is an issue of concern that needs further SO: Proceedings of 16th International Technical Conference investigation. For the covering abstract, see ITRD E118917. on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles, Held Windsor, Ontario, AN: E118933 Canada, 31 May4 June 1998. Vol. 2. 1998/10. (DOT HS 808 759) pp. 87382 (7 Refs.) Johnson, K. PY: 1998. SB: TRB-TRIS. AB: This paper is the culmination of previous work to deter- TI: How Many Hours Should a Trucker Drive? mine if steering behavior could be used to unobtrusively SO: Traffic Safety. 2000/03. 00(2) pp. 1416 (3 Phot.) detect driver fatigue. The driving performance of 17 sleep- AB: The National Transportation Safety Board estimates that deprived heavy-truck drivers was monitored on a closed track. fatigue is a factor in half of all trucking-related crash fatali- Functions in the time, frequency, and phase domains were ties annually. The government already has HOS regulations developed to quantify changes in steering wheel input. The for truckers. The problem is that the rules were put in place steering-based weighting functions which correlated most in 1939. The Federal Highway Administration is set to release strongly with independent measures of driver fatigue and proposed changes to the regulations in spring 2000, with the drowsiness were used to develop a simple algorithm. The algo- final version of the new rules released in late 2000 or early rithm predicted fatigue for all 17 volunteer drivers before the 2001. Safety groups and government bodies say changes in end of their test. The algorithm identified 12 drivers before a HOS should be considered in the context of other relevant lane breach occurred, and only two drivers were not captured factors, including the body's "internal clock," payment meth- until a lane breach greater than 15-cm occurred. These data and ods for truck drivers, and driving time records. Current regu- the algorithm demonstrate the potential for a steering-based lations say that for every 8 hr a trucker is off-duty, he can fatigue detection algorithm. (a) For the covering abstract, see drive for 10 hr and work (loading and unloading) for as long IRRD E102514. as 5 more. A trucking industry newspaper reported that the AN: E103116 new regulations would mandate a "14/10" schedule: 14 hr driving, 10 hr off. However, safety groups say that arrange- Mabbott, N., Newman, S., and Moore, B. ment does not give drivers enough time to get home and actu- SB: IRRD-OECD. ally sleep. They favor 12- to 14-hr rest periods with 10- to TI: Safety and productivity through flexibility: driving hours 12-hr driving limits. review. AN: 00790606 SO: ARRB Transport Research Ltd. Conference, 20th, 2001, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. 2001. 19 p. Khardi, S. PY: 2001. SB: IRRD-OECD. RN: 0-86910-799-2. TI: Drowsiness of the Driver: EEG (Electroencephalogram) AB: A review of the regulatory approach to heavy-vehicle and Vehicle Parameters Interaction. driver fatigue in Australia has now commenced. The review SO: Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Technical will be led by the NRTC with participation from road authori- Conference on Enhanced Safety of Vehicles, May 2326, ties, the road transport industry, and others. The objective of the 1994, Munich, Germany. Volume 1. 1995. (94-S3-O-06) pp. policy review is improvements in road safety and transport 44361 (75 Refs.) productivity through the development and implementation of PY: 1995. policies and practices to assist in the management of fatigue AB: Three factors are involved in car accidents: the road, the in drivers of heavy vehicles. Issues to be considered in future vehicle, and the driver. Of these, the first two have recently policy development include the extent of the problem, results received considerable attention; the third factor, the driver of recent research on circadian rhythms (time-of-day effects) behind the wheel, is probably the most important. Attention is and sleep/rest needs, the desirability of greater operator flexi- paid to the last two factors. The present study characterizes low bility within safety constraints, the WA approach of a Code of vigilance periods relative to driver's drowsiness by simultane- Practice applied under OH&S legislation, and consistency ous analysis of the recorded electroencephalogram (EEG), between transport and OH&S requirements. It is likely that steering wheel movements, and vehicle speed signals during proposals for evaluation will involve a flexible range of

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108 options from basic prescription to full fatigue management, SO: Proceedings of the 14th International Conference of all options consistent with the "duty of care" requirements of Alcohol, Drugs and Traffic--T'97, Held Annecy, France, occupational health and safety legislation, and more wide- 2126 September 1997, Vol. 2. 1997. pp. 58795 (33 Ref.) spread use of electronic record keeping, possibly as a pre- PY: 1997. requisite for increased flexibility. The latter part of this paper RN: 2-9511746-0-8. presents a summary of a project concerning flexibility options AB: Earlier work on the involvement of truck drivers in acci- for regulated HOS. (a) For the covering entry of this confer- dents is outlined. The author then examines in more detail ence, see ITRD E204173. evidence of the use of alcohol, medication, and narcotics. It AN: E204227 is suggested that these factors may be linked to the working conditions experienced by truck drivers, in particular work Macchi, M.M., Boulos, Z., Ranney, T., Simmons, L., and duration, sleep deprivation, and fatigue. Attention is drawn to Campbell, S.S. the occurrence of pathological sleeping disorders among pro- "Effects of an afternoon nap on nighttime alertness and per- fessional drivers. For the covering abstract, see IRRD 893732. formance in long-haul drivers." Accident Analysis & Pre- AN: 894677 vention. 2002/11. 34(6) 825834. Moore-Ede, M., Heitmann, A., Guttkuhn, R., Trutschel, U., Mahon, G.L. Aguirre, A., and Croke, D. SB: TRB-TRIS. SB: TRB-TRIS. TI: New Approaches to Fatigue Management: A Regulator's TI: Circadian Alertness Simulator for Fatigue Risk Assess- Perspective. ment in Transportation: Application to Reduce Frequency CA: American Trucking Associations, Inc., Alexandria, and Severity of Truck Accidents. VA, USA. SO: Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine. 2004/03. SO: Conference Title: Managing Fatigue in Transportation. 75(3) pp.107118 (7 Fig., 15 Ref.) Location: Tampa, Florida. Sponsored by: American Trucking PY: 2004. Associations, Association of American Railroads, Federal AB: The Circadian Alertness Simulator (CAS) was devel- Highway Administration, Federal Railroad Administration, oped for assessing the risk of diminished alertness at work. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, and National The assessment of operational fatigue risk, work schedule Transportation Safety Board. Held: 1997042919970430. optimization, and fatigue-related accident investigation are 1998. pp. 145153 (Refs.) some of the applications of CAS. Sleep and alertness patterns PY: 1998. are estimated based on the documented work schedules and RN: 0865875162. the cumulative fatigue score is calculated. The free parame- AB: The Fatigue Management Program is an initiative by ters of the algorithms were optimized using more than 10,000 the Queensland Department of Transport to move toward sleep and alertness datasets collected from transportation performance-based legislation to manage a major occupa- workers performing their regular jobs. Heavy truck drivers tional hazard--fatigue--in the road transport industry. The involved in DOT-recordable or high-cost accidents were found program targets the development and implementation of man- to have significantly higher CAS fatigue risk scores than acci- agement training, schedules, and education programs that dent free drivers. Further examination of CAS risk assess- focus on fatigue and outlines the need for drivers to acquire ment validity using scenarios provided in a fatigue modeling amounts of quality sleep, develop strategies for avoiding workshop indicated that the CAS model performed well in sleep loss, and consider the behavioral and physiological con- estimating alertness with a real-world transportation scenario sequences of tiredness. This will enhance awareness that of railroad locomotive engineer work-rest patterns. sleep can occur suddenly and without warning to all drivers AN: 00972989 regardless of their age or experience and that fatigue has a serious effect on a driver's work performance and safety. Parrott, S. Successful management of driver fatigue involves a cooper- SB: IRRD-OECD. ative approach between management and their drivers. It is TI: Dead tired. about balancing the fatigue levels of each driver and provid- SO: Commercial Motor. 2000/02/03/09. 191(4860) pp. 445. ing the appropriate countermeasures to alleviate the impact AB: According to recent researches, driver fatigue is blamed or onset of fatigue. for 10% of all road accidents and up to 20% of motorway AN: 00789176 accidents in the United Kingdom; 25% of lorry drivers suffer from dangerous levels of fatigue on the road because they are Mercier-Buyon, C. (Ed.), Vallet, M., and Khardi, S. too busy to take a break. This article discusses whether and SB: IRRD-OECD. to what extent their employers are to blame. Anyone in charge TI: Working Conditions and Fatigue Among Lorry Drivers: of a vehicle weighing at least 3.5 tons is liable to the EU driv- Alcohol, Drugs and Driving Safety: A Literature Study. ers' hours laws, which limit driving time to 10 hr per day for

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109 2 days per week and 9 hr per day for other days, and specify SO: Conference Title: Human Factors and Ergonomics Soci- required rest periods. Unfortunately, there are several ways ety 42nd Annual Meeting, Proceedings. Location: Chicago, of distorting driving records made by tachographs, and law IL. Sponsored by: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. enforcement has at least one loophole. At present, transport Held: 1998100519981009. 1998. 2 pp. is not yet covered by the EU Working Time Directive, which PY: 1998. became law in the United Kingdom 1 October 1998 and lim- RN: 0945289111. its the average working week to 48 hr, although the Transport AB: Official statistics indicate a trend toward an increase in & General Workers Union is urging an extension of this law. fatigue-related accidents over the past 5 years. It is widely A questionnaire was sent to 220 drivers and 420 managers of believed that these official statistics grossly underestimate the lorries, asking them about their driving hours and breaks in role of fatigue in accidents. This collaborative study defined relation to tiredness; the 720 replies showed quite high rates performance decrements that drivers experience under vary- of bad practices. In January 2000, the road safety campaign ing levels of partial and total sleep deprivation. A 4 (rested, group Brake held a conference for transport professionals partial, 36-hr, and 60-hr sleep deprivation) by 8 (type of road- concerned about fatigue, which produced useful advice for way) by 2 (gender) mixed factorial design with repeated employers. measures of driving performance in a high fidelity driving AN: E104633 simulator was used to define these performance decrements. Analyses revealed several driving performance measures were Peters, R. D. Effects of partial and total sleep deprivation on significantly affected by sleep deprivation including number driving performance. Proceedings from Human Factors and of crashes, lateral placement variance, speed, and lane excur- Ergonomics Society, Santa Monica, CA. Human Factors and sions. Regression analyses showed that lateral placement Ergonomics Society Inc., 1995. Vol. 2, 935. variance was the best predictor of crashes. The most surpris- AB: The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration ing finding was that most crashes were not directly preceded estimates that from 1989 through 1993, driver drowsiness/ by microsleep events (defined here as 1 to 15 seconds of stage fatigue was a contributing factor in 100,000 crashes annually 1 sleep). It has long been assumed that in most circumstances, on U.S. highways. A recent study examined the effects of drowsy drivers have gotten into accidents by falling asleep, progressive sleep deprivation on driving performance to but this finding refutes that belief. Drowsy driver crashes assess the rate of crashes and the changes in driving perfor- may, in fact, be more directly related to the inattention and mance resulting from sleepiness. Because it would be unsafe distractibility that accompany sleep deprivation than to falling to study this under real driving conditions, the high-fidelity asleep at the wheel. highway driving simulator was used. A variety of measures, AN: 00767979 including continuous EEG monitoring, videotaping, and analy- ses of driving performance data and questionnaire data were Peters, R.D., Wagner, E.K., Alicandri, E., Fox, J.E., Thomas, used to determine the effects of sleep deprivation on the driv- M.L., Thorne, D.R., Sing, H.C., and Balwinski, S.M. "Effects ing performance of six men and six women aged 26 to 35. of partial and total sleep deprivation on driving perfor- Highway safety variables, including number of crashes and mance." (1999). Public Roads. 62(4) 26. number of lane excursions, were unacceptably high on day 3 after 36 hr of no sleep and on day 4 after 60 hr without sleep. Ranney, T.A., Simmons, L.A., Boulos, Z. and Macchi, M.M. More subtle measures of highway safety such as speed and SB: TRB-TRIS. lateral placement variance were also linked to sleep depriva- TI: Effect of an Afternoon Nap on Nighttime Performance in tion. Although some trends appeared, none of the variables a Driving Simulator. were significantly affected by partial sleep deprivation, per- SO: Transportation Research Record. 1999. (1686) pp. 4956 haps because participants were young, very healthy, non- (4 Fig., 2 Tab., 32 Ref.) medicated and because they had no sleep debt at the start of PY: 1999. the study. A preliminary neural net analysis using the data RN: 0309071135. collected is underway. If patterns of driving performance can be identified, it will lend strong support for the development Riley, M.W., Stentz, T.L. and Tarawneh, I. of a neural net in-vehicle-based system for detecting and SB: TRB-TRIS. warning drowsy drivers of potential danger. TI: Safety Impact Issues of Job-Associated Sleep. CA: University of Nebraska, Lincoln, USA; Somnos Labo- Peters, R., Thomas, M., Welsh, A., Alicandri, E., Thorne, D., ratories, Lincoln, NE, USA. Sing, H., Wagner, E., and Belenki, G. SO: 1997/09. pp. 127 (Tabs., Apps.) SB: TRB-TRIS. PY: 1997. TI: Fatigue-Related Accidents: What Really Happens Prior RN: Report Number: MATC UNL96-2; Contract/Grant Num- to a Crash? ber: DTRS95-G-0007. CA: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, Inc., Santa AB: This research investigated the safety impact issues of Monica, CA, USA. job-associated sleep in truck drivers. The research focused on

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110 the anonymous survey of professional truck drivers. Infor- before, during, and after the instruction. For the covering mation was gathered regarding perception of driving perfor- abstract, see IRRD 896859. mance and its relationship to sleep on the road. In addition to AN: 899040 the survey, detailed information was gathered on a typical sleeper berth used by 65% of the respondents. All recom- Status Report. 2004/08/01. 39(7) pp. 23 (1 Phot.) mendations address issues that were identified by less than SB: TRB-TRIS. 85% of the respondents in the questionnaire. Thus, the poten- TI: Try Again on Rules Governing Truck Driving Hours, tial impact of these recommendations can be low due to the Court of Appeals Tells FMCSA. small response sample of professional drivers. First, drivers PY: 2004. should be medically screened and treated if necessary for AB: The U.S. Court of Appeals has decided that rules issued sleep disorders. Second, special training and education is by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) needed to help drivers improve their strategies to overcome fail to take into consideration the safety and health of truck fatigue and obtain more and better quantity sleep. Third, the drivers. While FMCSAs proposed rules would have required presence of sleep deprivation in drivers, as a result of many a longer rest period between stretches of driving, they would contributing factors, indicates a need for a comprehensive also have extended the maximum allowable driving time and design model for work-rest cycle planning. Fourth, the phys- would not have required onboard recorders to monitor truck- ical discomforts reported by drivers need additional investi- ers hours of driving. The Court questioned the rationality of gation to determine the sources of exposure in order to the FMCSA and specified that the agency focus on the safety facilitate exposure elimination or reduction. of truck drivers rather than on promoting the economic well- AN: 00789661 being of the motor carrier industry. AN: 00978338 Rothengatter, T. (Ed.), Carbonell-Vaya, E. (Ed.), Desmond, P.A., and Matthews, G. Steinberg, C. SB: IRRD-OECD. SB: TRB-TRIS To Health Group. TI: The Role of Motivation in Fatigue-Related Decrements TI: A Study of Prevalence of Sleep Apnea among Commer- in Simulated Driving Performance. cial Truck Drivers. SO: Traffic and Transport psychology. Theory and Applica- SO: Tech Brief. 2002/07. pp. 4 (1 Ref.) tion. 1997. pp. 32534. PY: 2002. PY: 1997. RN: Report Number: FMCSA-RT-02-080. RN: 0-08-042786-3. AB: Staying awake means staying alive. This is a slogan used AB: The role of the driver's motivational state in eliciting to describe a research study on sleep apnea sponsored by the fatigue-related decrements in driving performance has been FMCSA and the American Transportation Research Institute largely neglected by researchers. However, its importance of the American Trucking Associations. The research project has been highlighted by McDonald (1984), who argues for addressed the prevalence of sleep apnea among CMV drivers, motivational explanations for impairments in decisionmak- potential risk factors, and its impact on driving performance. ing, judgment of risk and attention when driving is prolonged. This tech brief summarizes the project's final report, "A Studies of fatigue in contexts other than driving also indicate Study of Prevalence of Sleep Apnea Among Commercial that de-motivation and apathy are primary symptoms of Truck Drivers." fatigue, which are expressed in reduced effort on the task at AN: 00932082 hand (Craig and Cooper 1992). Hence the aim of the present study was to examine the effect of a motivational manipula- Stutts, J.C., Wilkins, J.W., and Vaughn, B.V. tion in reversing or reducing fatigue-related decrements in SB: TRB-TRIS. simulated driving performance. The authors also aimed to TI: Causes of Sleepiness in Drivers Who Crash. examine implications of motivational change for the design CA: Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medi- and use of in-vehicle countermeasures to driver fatigue. As cine, Barrington, IL, USA. in the Desmond and Matthews (1996) study, drivers per- SO: Conference Title: Association for the Advancement of formed both a fatiguing drive, in the first part of which a Automotive Medicine 45th Annual Proceedings. Location: San fatigue induction procedure was added to the primary task of Antonio, Texas. Sponsored by: Association for the Advance- driving, and a control drive without fatigue induction. The ment of Automotive Medicine. Held: 2001092420010926. effects of the fatigue manipulation on drivers' subjective 2001. pp. 416419 (3 Fig.) states were assessed by the selection of subjective measures PY: 2001. used in the previous study. The motivational manipulation, RN: Report Number: Scientific poster. an instruction that driving skill was under assessment, AB: For the large majority of the driving public, sleepiness is appeared in early and late stages of control and fatigue drives. likely due to one of three causes: not getting enough sleep on Control of the lateral position of the vehicle was assessed a routine basis; getting much less sleep than needed on a

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111 short-term or single night basis; or not sleeping when one's Tech Brief, 1999/04. biological clock is programmed to sleep. These three causes Eye-activity measures of fatigue and napping as a fatigue are the focus of the current study. Population-based samples countermeasure. of drivers in recent crashes were identified from North Car- FHWA-MCRT-99-010. olina crash report forms as they were received at the Division of Motor Vehicles office in Raleigh, North Carolina. All Tech Brief. 1999/08. pp. 4 (3 Fig.) cases in which the driver of a vehicle was coded as either SB: TRB-TRIS. "asleep" or "fatigued" by the investigating officer were iden- TI: Eye-Activity Measures of Fatigue and Napping as a tified, along with a random sample of control crash drivers. Fatigue Countermeasure. The identified drivers were then contacted for telephone inter- PY: 1999. views to obtain information on their work/sleep schedules RN: Report Number: FHWA-MCRT-99-010. and circumstances surrounding their crashes. Chronic sleep AB: CMV driver inattention, particularly that due to fatigue, loss, acute sleep loss, and nighttime sleep disruption were all is widely recognized as an important safety issue in the trans- found to be important contributors to sleep-related motor portation industry. This tech brief summarizes an Office of vehicle crashes. Although certain segments of the population, Motor Carrier and Highway Safety study to investigate the including shift workers and persons with undiagnosed sleep potential of an eye tracking system for detecting reduced disorders, are known to be at high risk for involvement in driver alertness and to determine the impact of preventative sleep-related motor vehicle crashes, the vast majority of such napping on driver alertness and performance. The complete crashes involve individuals who either do not get enough final report will be available from the National Technical sleep on a regular basis, got far too little sleep the night before Information Service. their crash, and/or were trying to drive when their biological AN: 00789191 clocks were programmed for sleep. AN: 00923459 Tech Brief. 2000/01. pp. 4 (1 Phot.) SB: TRB-TRIS. Tech Brief. 1998/10. pp. 4 (1 Fig., 1 Tab., 1 Ref.) TI: Driver Alertness and Fatigue: Summary of Completed SB: TRB-TRIS. Research Projects, 199598. TI: PERCLOS: A Valid Psychophysiological Measure of RN: Report Number: FMCSA-MCRT-00-006. Alertness as Assessed by Psychomotor Vigilance. AB: This document describes projects in the FMCSA's PY: 1998. Driver Alertness and Fatigue Research and Technology RN: Report Number: FHWA-MCRT-98-006. (R&T) focus area that were completed during the years 1995 AB: This tech brief summarizes an Intelligent Transportation to 1998 under the former Office of Motor Carriers in the System (ITS) study titled "Evaluation of Techniques for Ocu- FHWA. The projects covered in this tech brief include Driver lar Measurement as an Index of Fatigue and as the Basis for Fatigue and Alertness Study, Fitness-for-Duty Testing, Alertness Management." The study was funded in part by CMV Rest Areas--Making Space for Safety, Multi-Trailer the FHWA's Office of Motor Carriers and managed by the Combination Vehicle Stress and Fatigue, Validation of Eye National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). The project's goal was to evaluate the validity and reliability and Other Psychophysiological Monitors, Local/Short Haul of several drowsiness-detection measures and technologies in Driver Fatigue Crash Data Analysis, Shipper Involvement in a controlled laboratory setting and to analyze the effects of HOS Violations, and Assessment of Electronic On-Board alerting stimuli on drivers' alertness levels. Of the drowsiness- Recorders for HOS Compliance. In addition, 3 conferences detection measures and technologies evaluated in this dealing with driver fatigue are described. study, the measure referred to as "PERCLOS" was found to AN: 00789182 be the most reliable and valid determination of a driver's alertness level. PERCLOS is the percentage of eyelid closure Van Schagen, I. over the pupil over time and reflects slow eyelid closures SB: IRRD-OECD. ("droops") rather than blinks. A PERCLOS drowsiness met- TI: Fatigue while driving: inventory of causes, effects, and ric was established in a 1994 driving simulator study as the measures. (Vermoeidheid achter het stuur: een inventarisatie proportion of time in 1 min that the eyes are at least 80% van oorzaken, gevolgen en maatregelen.) closed. FHWA and NHTSA consider PERCLOS to be among SO: 2003. (R-2003-16) 45 p. (67 Refs.) the most promising known real-time measures of alertness PY: 2003. for in-vehicle drowsiness-detection systems. The results of AB: Also in the Netherlands there is an increasing awareness this research support the development of a "first-ever" real- that driving while tired is an important factor in the occur- time drowsiness detection sensor that would measure the per- rence of road accidents. This literature study aims at provid- centage of eyelid closure over the pupil, over time (i.e., ing an overview of the knowledge and insights about the PERCLOS). relationship between fatigue and road safety. The study shows AN: 00760599 that fatigue has many more causes than the time somebody

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112 has been driving. Too little sleep or a poor quality sleep, the Watson, G.S., Weiler, J.M., Woodworth, G.G., Qidwai, J.C., time of day, and stress situations all contribute to the occur- and Quinn, S.A. rence of fatigue. Determining the extent to which fatigue SB: IRRD-OECD. plays a part in accidents occurring is extremely awkward. It TI: An analysis of driving performance measures used to is almost impossible to objectively diagnose fatigue. When assess the effects of medications on drowsiness, sedation, and the various foreign data sources are combined, it must be con- driving impairment. cluded that fatigue is a (partial) cause in 10 to 15% of all SO: Proceedings of the First International Driving Sympo- severe accidents. There is no reason to suppose that in the sium on Human Factors in Driver Assessment, Training, and Netherlands this percentage is substantially different. The Vehicle Design, Held Aspen, Colorado, August 1417, 2001. short-term possibilities of taking measures to reduce the num- pp. 252. ber of fatigue-related accidents are limited, especially for the PY: 2001. "normal" car driver. The only thing that can be done at the AB: The objective of this paper was to discuss driving sce- moment is in the sphere of information. In addition, for pro- narios and associated driving performance measures on fessional drivers, there are legal possibilities concerning driv- their ability to demonstrate drowsiness, sedation, and driving ing hours, duration, and rest periods and their enforcement, impairment. The basis of this paper was a study that utilized but there is also the possibility of starting so-called fatigue a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, four-treatment, management programs and propagating a safety culture within four-period crossover trial in the Iowa Driving Simulator haulage companies. In the more distant future, there are pos- (IDS). Participants were 40 licensed drivers with seasonal sibilities in the sphere of intelligent systems that automati- allergic rhinitis who were 25 to 44 years of age. Treatments cally detect and, if necessary, intervene. There are various were Fexofenadine, diphenhydramine, alcohol, or placebo, promising developments, but their large-scale application given at weekly intervals before participants drove for 1 hr in will take some time. This report may be accessed by Internet the IDS. Measures examined included coherence, amplitude, phase angle, RMS error, following distance and behavior, users at: http://www.swov.nl/rapport/ R-2003-16.pdf. lane keeping, response to unexpected vehicle intrusion, and AN: E206767 drowsiness. Study results show that sedating antihistamines impair driving performance as seriously as alcohol. Statisti- Van Winsum, W. cally significant but small correlations were found between SB: IRRD-OECD. subjective drowsiness and minimum following distance, steer- TI: Age-related differences in effects of drowsiness on mea- ing instability, and left-lane excursions but no correlation was sures of driver behaviour and performance. greater than 0.21. Drowsiness was a weak predictor of driv- SO: 1999/01/05. (TM-99-C001) 23p (18 Refs.) ing impairment. This paper discusses these and other find- PY: 1999. ings with an emphasis on the adequacy of driving scenarios AB: In a driving simulator, the effects of time on task were and the sensitivity of driving performance measures analyzed. measured on variables that measure drowsiness, driving per- For the covering abstract, see ITRD E113119. formance, and steering behavior for groups of younger and AN: E113161 older drivers. It was found that the fraction of time during which the eyes were closed is a good measure of drowsiness Williamson, A., Feyer, A.M., Friswell, R., and Finlay- that is sensitive to the effects of time on task. Of all single Brown, S. variables that measure driver performance and impairment, SB: IRRD-OECD. the percentage of time during which any part of the vehicle TI: Development of measures of fatigue: using an alcohol exceeded one of the lane boundaries was the most strongly comparison to validate the effects of fatigue on performance. affected by time on task. Also, with progressing drowsiness, SO: Report. 2000/07. (CR 189) 72 p. the amplitude of steering corrections increased toward larger PY: 2000. values. This was caused both by larger error corrections in RN: 0-642-25579-2. response to larger errors and by an increase in coarseness of AB: This study was the first of a series looking at the devel- the steering response. Large steering corrections proved to be opment of model work-rest schedules that have demonstrated the single best indicator of progressing impairment by drowsi- effectiveness in managing driver fatigue. The aim was to ness and fatigue. Older drivers performed poorer on lateral develop a range of performance tests with demonstrated sen- control of the vehicle compared with younger drivers. Also, sitivity for fatigue and for which the fatigue effects could be driving performance of older drivers deteriorated more with interpreted on the basis of a community-accepted standard time on task compared with younger drivers. However, there for safety. Performance effects were studied in the same sub- were no differences between younger and older drivers in the jects over a period of 28 hr of sleep deprivation and follow- reliability and validity of the different measures for drowsi- ing measured doses of alcohol up to approximately 0.1% ness, steering behavior, or driving performance. BAC. Subjects were 39 employees from the transport industry

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113 and the army. After 17 to 19 hr without sleep, corresponding ilance test, symbol digit coding, visual search, sequential spa- to approximately 10:30 p.m. and just after midnight, perfor- tial memory, and logical reasoning. While performance mance on some tests was equivalent or worse than that at effects were seen due to alcohol for all tests, sleep depriva- 0.05% BAC. Response speeds were up to 50% slower for tion affected performance on most tests, but had no effect on some tests and accuracy measures were significantly poorer performance on the visual search and logical reasoning tests. at this level of alcohol. After longer periods without sleep, per- Some tests showed evidence of a circadian rhythm effect on formance reached levels equivalent to the maximum alcohol performance, in particular, simple reaction time, dual task, dose given to subjects (0.1% BAC). The results also demon- Mackworth clock vigilance, and symbol digit coding, but strated that not all types of performance tests were affected by only for response speed and not response accuracy. Drivers sleep deprivation. Also, differences between the performance were slower but more accurate than controls on the symbol of drivers and controls suggested that drivers took a more con- digit test, suggesting that they took a more conservative servative approach to performance. This study demonstrated approach to performance of this test. This study demonstrated which of a set of performance tests can be used in evaluations which tests are most sensitive to sleep deprivation and of fatigue and fatigue countermeasures. The findings also rein- fatigue. The study therefore has established a set of tests that force evidence that the fatigue of sleep deprivation is impor- can be used in evaluations of fatigue and fatigue counter- tant and likely to compromise speed and accuracy needed for measures. safety on the road and in other industrial settings. AN: E204278 Yarrow, R. SB: IRRD-OECD. Williamson, A.M., Feyer, A.M., Mattick, R.P., Friswell, R., TI: Wake up call. and Finlay-Brown, S. SO: Auto Express. 2000/11/22. (629) pp. 356. SB: IRRD-OECD. PY: 2000. TI: Developing measures of fatigue using an alcohol com- AB: The results are detailed of a trial carried out at the Sleep parison to validate the effects of fatigue on performance. Research Centre, Loughborough University, into the effects SO: Accident Analysis & Prevention. 2001/05. 33(3) pp. of caffeine-packed soft drinks on sleepy drivers. According 31326 (40 Refs.) to the Department of Environment, Transport and Regions' PY: 2001. statistics, 1 in 10 of all accidents on UK roads are caused by AB: The effects of 28 hr of sleep deprivation were compared people falling asleep with 1 in 5 of accidents on motorways. with varying doses of alcohol up to 0.1% BAC in the same The trial consisted of fifteen sleep-deprived drivers being subjects. The study was conducted in the laboratory. Twenty tested in a car simulator. The results show the effects on driv- long-haul truck drivers and 19 people not employed as pro- ing performance of sleep-deprivation and how taking a high- fessional drivers acted as subjects. Tests were selected that energy soft drink can virtually overcome the effects of a lack were likely to be affected by fatigue, including simple reac- of sleep for a limited time. tion time, unstable tracking, dual task, Mackworth clock vig- AN: E108633