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CHAPTER 5 TCRP REPORT 95 TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration Vanpools and Buspools Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes

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TCRP OVERSIGHT AND PROJECT TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 2005 (Membership as of March 2005) SELECTION COMMITTEE (as of December 2004) OFFICERS CHAIR Chair: Joseph H. Boardman, Commissioner, New York State DOT SHARON GREENE Vice Chair: Michael D. Meyer, Professor, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sharon Greene & Associates Georgia Institute of Technology Executive Director: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS KAREN ANTION MEMBERS Karen Antion Consulting LINDA J. BOHLINGER MICHAEL W. BEHRENS, Executive Director, Texas DOT HNTB Corp. LARRY L. BROWN, SR., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT ROBERT I. BROWNSTEIN DEBORAH H. BUTLER, Vice Pres., Customer Service, Norfolk Southern Corporation and Subsidiaries, Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas, Inc. Atlanta, GA PETER A. CANNITO ANNE P. CANBY, President, Surface Transportation Policy Project, Washington, DC Metropolitan Transit Authority--Metro-North JOHN L. CRAIG, Director, Nebraska Department of Roads Railroad DOUGLAS G. DUNCAN, President and CEO, FedEx Freight, Memphis, TN GREGORY COOK NICHOLAS J. GARBER, Professor of Civil Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville Ann Arbor Transportation Authority ANGELA GITTENS, Consultant, Miami, FL JENNIFER L. DORN GENEVIEVE GIULIANO, Director, Metrans Transportation Center, and Professor, School of Policy, FTA Planning, and Development, USC, Los Angeles NATHANIEL P. FORD, SR. BERNARD S. GROSECLOSE, JR., President and CEO, South Carolina State Ports Authority Metropolitan Atlanta RTA RONALD L. FREELAND SUSAN HANSON, Landry University Professor of Geography, Graduate School of Geography, Clark University Parsons Transportation Group JAMES R. HERTWIG, President, CSX Intermodal, Jacksonville, FL FRED M. GILLIAM GLORIA J. JEFF, Director, Michigan DOT Capital Metropolitan Transportation Authority ADIB K. KANAFANI, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley KIM R. GREEN HERBERT S. LEVINSON, Principal, Herbert S. Levinson Transportation Consultant, New Haven, CT GFI GENFARE SUE MCNEIL, Director and Professor, Urban Transportation Center, University of Illinois, Chicago JILL A. HOUGH MICHAEL MORRIS, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments North Dakota State University CAROL A. MURRAY, Commissioner, New Hampshire DOT ROBERT H. IRWIN JOHN R. NJORD, Executive Director, Utah DOT British Columbia Transit PHILIP A. SHUCET, Commissioner, Virginia DOT JEANNE W. KRIEG MICHAEL S. TOWNES, President and CEO, Hampton Roads Transit, Hampton, VA Eastern Contra Costa Transit Authority C. MICHAEL WALTON, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin CELIA G. KUPERSMITH LINDA S. WATSON, Executive Director, LYNX--Central Florida Regional Transportation Authority Golden Gate Bridge, Highway and Transportation District EX OFFICIO MEMBERS PAUL J. LARROUSSE National Transit Institute MARION C. BLAKEY, Federal Aviation Administrator, U.S.DOT DAVID A. LEE REBECCA M. BREWSTER, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA Connecticut Transit GEORGE BUGLIARELLO, Chancellor, Polytechnic University, and Foreign Secretary, National Academy CLARENCE W. MARSELLA of Engineering Denver Regional Transportation District THOMAS H. COLLINS (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard FAYE L. M. MOORE JENNIFER L. DORN, Federal Transit Administrator, U.S.DOT Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation JAMES J. EBERHARDT, Chief Scientist, Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies, Authority MICHAEL H. MULHERN U.S. Department of Energy Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority STACEY L. GERARD, Acting Deputy Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, STEPHANIE L. PINSON U.S.DOT Gilbert Tweed Associates, Inc. EDWARD R. HAMBERGER, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads ROBERT H. PRINCE, JR. JOHN C. HORSLEY, Exec. Dir., American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials DMJM+Harris ROBERT D. JAMISON, Acting Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S. DOT JEFFREY M. ROSENBERG EDWARD JOHNSON, Director, Applied Science Directorate, National Aeronautics and Space Administration Amalgamated Transit Union RICK KOWALEWSKI, Deputy Director, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, U.S.DOT BEVERLY A. SCOTT WILLIAM W. MILLAR, President, American Public Transportation Association Sacramento Regional Transit District MARY E. PETERS, Federal Highway Administrator, U.S.DOT PAUL P. SKOUTELAS ERIC C. PETERSON, Deputy Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT Port Authority of Allegheny County SUZANNE RUDZINSKI, Director, Transportation and Regional Programs, U.S. EPA KATHRYN D. WATERS JEFFREY W. RUNGE, National Highway Traffic Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT Dallas Area Rapid Transit ANNETTE M. SANDBERG, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT EX OFFICIO MEMBERS WILLIAM G. SCHUBERT, Maritime Administrator, U.S.DOT WILLIAM W. MILLAR JEFFREY N. SHANE, Under Secretary for Policy, U.S.DOT APTA CARL A. STROCK (Maj. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps MARY E. PETERS of Engineers FHWA JOHN C. HORSLEY TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM AASHTO ROBERT E. SKINNER, JR. Transportation Research Board Executive Committee Subcommittee for TCRP TRB JOSEPH H. BOARDMAN, New York State DOT (Chair) JENNIFER L. DORN, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT TDC EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR MICHAEL D. MEYER, Georgia Institute of Technology LOUIS F. SANDERS APTA WILLIAM W. MILLAR, American Public Transportation Association ROBERT E. SKINNER, JR., Transportation Research Board SECRETARY MICHAEL S. TOWNES, Hampton Roads Transit, Hampton, VA ROBERT J. REILLY C. MICHAEL WALTON, University of Texas, Austin TRB LINDA S. WATSON, LYNX--Central Florida Regional Transportation Authority

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TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM TCRP REPORT 95 Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Chapter 5--Vanpools and Buspools JOHN E. (JAY) EVANS, IV Lead Chapter Author RICHARD H. PRATT Contributing Chapter Author RICHARD H. PRATT, CONSULTANT, INC. Garrett Park, MD JAY EVANS CONSULTING LLC Washington, DC TEXAS TRANSPORTATION INSTITUTE College Station, TX PARSONS BRINCKERHOFF QUADE & DOUGLAS, INC./PB CONSULT INC. Baltimore, MD, Portland, OR, and San Francisco, CA CAMBRIDGE SYSTEMATICS, INC. Chevy Chase, MD J. RICHARD KUZMYAK, L.L.C. Silver Spring, MD BMI-SG: A VHB COMPANY Vienna, VA GALLOP CORPORATION Rockville, MD MCCOLLOM MANAGEMENT CONSULTING, INC. Darnestown, MD HERBERT S. LEVINSON, TRANSPORTATION CONSULTANT New Haven, CT K.T. ANALYTICS, INC. Bethesda, MD S UBJECT A REAS Planning and Administration Public Transit Highway Operations, Capacity and Traffic Control Research Sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration in Cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2005 www.TRB.org

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TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM TCRP REPORT 95: Chapter 5 The nation's growth and the need to meet mobility, Project B-12A environmental, and energy objectives place demands on public ISSN 1073-4872 transit systems. Current systems, some of which are old and in need ISBN 0-309-08828-3 of upgrading, must expand service area, increase service frequency, Library of Congress Control Number 2005927531 and improve efficiency to serve these demands. Research is 2005 Transportation Research Board necessary to solve operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into Price $20.00 the transit industry. The Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the transit industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for TCRP was originally identified in TRB Special Report 213--Research for Public Transit: New Directions, published in 1987 and based on a study sponsored by the Urban Mass Transportation Administration--now the Federal Transit Admin- istration (FTA). A report by the American Public Transportation NOTICE Association (APTA), Transportation 2000, also recognized the need The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Transit Cooperative for local, problem-solving research. TCRP, modeled after the Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the longstanding and successful National Cooperative Highway approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such Research Program, undertakes research and other technical activities approval reflects the Governing Board's judgment that the project concerned is in response to the needs of transit service providers. The scope of appropriate with respect to both the purposes and resources of the National TCRP includes a variety of transit research fields including plan- Research Council. ning, service configuration, equipment, facilities, operations, human The members of the technical advisory panel selected to monitor this project and resources, maintenance, policy, and administrative practices. to review this report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with TCRP was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992. due consideration for the balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The Proposed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, TCRP was opinions and conclusions expressed or implied are those of the research agency authorized as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation that performed the research, and while they have been accepted as appropriate Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). On May 13, 1992, a memorandum by the technical panel, they are not necessarily those of the Transportation agreement outlining TCRP operating procedures was executed by Research Board, the National Research Council, the Transit Development the three cooperating organizations: FTA; the National Academies, Corporation, or the Federal Transit Administration of the U.S. Department of acting through the Transportation Research Board (TRB); and Transportation. the Transit Development Corporation, Inc. (TDC), a nonprofit Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical panel educational and research organization established by APTA. according to procedures established and monitored by the Transportation TDC is responsible for forming the independent governing board, Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National designated as the TCRP Oversight and Project Selection (TOPS) Research Council. Committee. Research problem statements for TCRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the TOPS Committee to formulate the research Special Notice program by identifying the highest priority projects. As part of the The Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, the Transit evaluation, the TOPS Committee defines funding levels and Development Corporation, and the Federal Transit Administration (sponsor of expected products. the Transit Cooperative Research Program) do not endorse products or Once selected, each project is assigned to an expert panel, manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they appointed by the Transportation Research Board. The panels prepare are considered essential to the clarity and completeness of the project reporting. project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooperative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activ- ities, TCRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Because research cannot have the desired impact if products fail Published reports of the to reach the intended audience, special emphasis is placed on disseminating TCRP results to the intended end users of the TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM research: transit agencies, service providers, and suppliers. TRB are available from: provides a series of research reports, syntheses of transit practice, and other supporting material developed by TCRP research. APTA Transportation Research Board Business Office will arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, and other 500 Fifth Street, NW activities to ensure that results are implemented by urban and rural Washington, DC 20001 transit industry practitioners. The TCRP provides a forum where transit agencies can and can be ordered through the Internet at cooperatively address common operational problems. The TCRP http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore results support and complement other ongoing transit research and training programs. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished schol- ars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and techni- cal matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Acad- emy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achieve- ments of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Acad- emy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both the Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. William A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is a division of the National Research Council, which serves the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering. The Board's mission is to promote innovation and progress in transportation through research. In an objective and interdisciplinary setting, the Board facilitates the sharing of information on transportation practice and policy by researchers and practitioners; stimulates research and offers research management services that promote technical excellence; provides expert advice on transportation policy and programs; and disseminates research results broadly and encourages their implementation. The Board's varied activities annually engage more than 5,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS STAFF FOR TCRP REPORT 95 ROBERT J. REILLY, Director, Cooperative Research Programs CHRISTOPHER W. JENKS, TCRP Manager STEPHAN A. PARKER, Senior Program Officer EILEEN P. DELANEY, Director of Publications NATASSJA LINZAU, Associate Editor TCRP PROJECT B-12A PANEL Field of Service Configuration PAUL J. LARROUSSE, National Transit Institute, Rutgers University, NJ (Chair) PATRICK T. DeCORLA-SOUZA, Federal Highway Administration KEITH L. KILLOUGH, KLK Consulting, Los Angeles, CA REZA NAVAI, California DOT CYNTHIA ANN NORDT, Houston, TX NEIL J. PEDERSEN, Maryland State Highway Administration G. SCOTT RUTHERFORD, University of Washington, Seattle, WA DARWIN G. STUART, Skokie, IL RON FISHER, FTA Liaison Representative RICHARD WEAVER, APTA Liaison Representative KIM FISHER, TRB Liaison Representative

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This "Vanpools and Buspools" chapter highlights the travel demand findings for FOREWORD vanpooling and buspooling. The chapter examines the effects of travel times, pricing, By Stephan A. Parker and a number of related tangibles and intangibles on the decision to vanpool in partic- Staff Officer Transportation Research ular; quantifies vanpooling and buspooling as best can be done; looks at vanpooling Board trends; examines rider survey information; identifies indicators of market potential; and explores cost implications, among other subjects. Vanpools generally consist of 5 to 15 people, including a volunteer driver-member, that elect to commute together in a van. Vanpooling is distinguished from carpooling by not only size, but also the greater degree of management and institutional involve- ment required. Meanwhile, buspool programs offer a neighborhood-based demand responsive service similar to vanpooling, but with professional or, at least, appropri- ately licensed bus drivers and the use of buses, mini-buses, or large vans. The infor- mation presented in Chapter 5 on vanpools and buspools covers both traveler response and implications for program success This chapter has limited overlap with several others. Chapter 2, "HOV Facilities," Chapter 3, "Park and Ride/Pool," and Chapter 11, "Transit Information and Promo- tion," have relevance. Chapter 6, "Demand Responsive/ADA," covers dial-a-ride, a complementary form of transit service for low-density areas that can address non-work travel in particular. Chapter 12, "Transit Pricing and Fares," and Chapter 19, "Employer and Institutional TDM Strategies," contain examples of vanpooling as a component of travel demand management (TDM) programs. TCRP Report 95: Chapter 5, Vanpools and Buspools will be of interest to transit and transportation planning practitioners; educators and researchers; and professionals across a broad spectrum of transportation and planning agencies, MPOs, and local, state, and federal government agencies. The overarching objective of the Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook is to equip members of the transportation profession with a com- prehensive, readily accessible, interpretive documentation of results and experience obtained across the United States and elsewhere from (1) different types of transporta- tion system changes and policy actions and (2) alternative land use and site develop- ment design approaches. While the focus is on contemporary observations and assess- ments of traveler responses as expressed in travel demand changes, the presentation is seasoned with earlier experiences and findings to identify trends or stability, and to fill information gaps that would otherwise exist. Comprehensive referencing of additional reference materials is provided to facilitate and encourage in-depth exploration of top- ics of interest. Travel demand and related impacts are expressed using such measures as usage of transportation facilities and services, before-and-after market shares and percentage changes, and elasticity.

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The findings in the Handbook are intended to aid--as a general guide--in prelim- inary screening activities and quick turn-around assessments. The Handbook is not intended for use as a substitute for regional or project-specific travel demand evalua- tions and model applications, or other independent surveys and analyses. The Second Edition of the handbook Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes was published by USDOT in July 1981, and it has been a valuable tool for transportation professionals, providing documentation of results from different types of transportation actions. This Third Edition of the Handbook covers 18 topic areas, including essentially all of the nine topic areas in the 1981 edition, modified slightly in scope, plus nine new topic areas. Each topic is published as a chapter of TCRP Report 95. To access the chapters, select "TCRP, All Projects, B-12A" from the TCRP web- site: http://www.trb.org/tcrp. A team led by Richard H. Pratt, Consultant, Inc. is responsible for the Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook, Third Edition, through work conducted under TCRP Projects B-12, B-12A, and B-12B. REPORT ORGANIZATION The Handbook, organized for simultaneous print and electronic chapter-by-chapter publication, treats each chapter essentially as a stand-alone document. Each chapter includes text and self-contained references and sources on that topic. For example, the references cited in the text of Chapter 6, "Demand Responsive/ADA," refer to the Reference List at the end of that chapter. The Handbook user should, however, be con- versant with the background and guidance provided in TCRP Report 95: Chapter 1, Introduction. Upon completion of the Report 95 series, the final Chapter 1 publication will include a CD-ROM of all 19 chapters. The complete outline of chapters is provided below.

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Handbook Outline Showing Publication and Source-Data-Cutoff Dates U.S. DOT Publication TCRP Report 95 Estimated General Sections and Topic Area Chapters First Second Source Data Publication (TCRP Report 95 Nomenclature) Edition Edition Cutoff Date Date Ch. 1 Introduction (with Appendices A, B) 1977e 1981e 2003a 2000/03/05a Multimodal/Intermodal Facilities Ch. 2 HOV Facilities 1977e 1981e 1999-05f 2000/05b Ch. 3 Park-and-Ride/Pool -- 1981e 2003c 2004b Transit Facilities and Services Ch. 4 Busways, BRT and Express Bus 1977e 1981e 2004c 2005d Ch. 5 Vanpools and Buspools 1977e 1981e 1999-04f 2005b e f Ch. 6 Demand Responsive/ADA -- -- 1999 2004b Ch. 7 Light Rail Transit --e -- 2005f 2005d e f Ch. 8 Commuter Rail -- -- 2005 2005d Public Transit Operations Ch. 9 Transit Scheduling and Frequency 1977e 1981e 1999f 2004b e e f Ch. 10 Bus Routing and Coverage 1977 1981 1999 2004b Ch. 11 Transit Information and Promotion 1977e 1981e 2002f 2003b Transportation Pricing Ch. 12 Transit Pricing and Fares 1977e 1981e 1999f 2004b Ch. 13 Parking Pricing and Fees 1977e -- 1999f 2005b e f Ch. 14 Road Value Pricing 1977 -- 2002-03 2003b Land Use and Non-Motorized Travel Ch. 15 Land Use and Site Design -- -- 2001-02f 2003b e Ch. 16 Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities -- -- 2004 2005d Ch. 17 Transit Oriented Design -- -- 2004d 2005d Transportation Demand Management Ch. 18 Parking Management and Supply -- -- 2000-02f 2003b Ch. 19 Employer and Institutional TDM Strategies 1977e 1981e 2005e 2005d a NOTES: Published in TCRP Web Document 12, Interim Handbook (March 2000), without Appendix B. The "Interim Introduction," published as Research Results Digest 61 (September 2003), is a replacement, available at http://www4.trb.org/trb/crp.nsf/All+Projects/TCRP+B- 12A,+Phase+II. Publication of the final version of Chapter 1, "Introduction," as part of the TCRP Report 95 series, is anticipated for 2005. b Published in TCRP Web Document 12, Interim Handbook, in March 2000. Available now at http://www4.nas.edu/trb/crp.nsf/All+Projects/TCRP+B-12. Publication as part of the TCRP Report 95 series is anticipated in 2005. c The source data cutoff date for certain components of this chapter was 1999. d Estimated. e The edition in question addressed only certain aspects of later edition topical coverage. f Primary cutoff was first year listed, but with selected information from second year listed.

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CHAPTER 5 AUTHOR AND CONTRIBUTOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS TCRP Report 95, in essence the Third Edition of the "Traveler Bozik, and Jeff Waclawski of Parsons Brinckerhoff; others too Response to Transportation System Changes" Handbook, is being numerous to name but fully appreciated; and lastly the warmly prepared under Transit Cooperative Research Program Projects remembered late Susan Spielberg of SG Associates (now BMI-SG). B-12, B-12A and B-12B by Richard H. Pratt, Consultant, Inc. in Special thanks go to all involved for supporting the cooperative association with Jay Evans Consulting LLC; the Texas Transporta- process adopted for topic area chapter development. Members of tion Institute; Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas, Inc./PB the TCRP Project B-12/B-12A/B-12B Project Panel, named else- Consult Inc.; Cambridge Systematics, Inc.; J. Richard Kuzmyak, where, are providing review and comments for what will total over L.L.C.; BMI-SG: a VHB company; Gallop Corporation; McCollom 20 individual publication documents/chapters. They have gone the Management Consulting, Inc.; Herbert S. Levinson, Transportation extra mile in providing support on call including leads, reports, doc- Consultant; and K.T. Analytics, Inc. umentation, advice, and direction over what will be the eight-year Richard H. Pratt is the Principal Investigator. Dr. Katherine F. duration of the project. Four consecutive appointed or acting TCRP Turnbull of the Texas Transportation Institute assisted as co- Senior Program Officers have given their support: Stephanie N. Principal Investigator during initial Project B-12 phases, leading up Robinson, who took the project through scope development and to the Phase I Interim Report and the Phase II Draft Interim contract negotiation; Stephen J. Andrle, who led the work during Handbook. With the addition of Project B-12B research, John E. the Project B-12 Phase and on into the TCRP B-12A Project Con- (Jay) Evans, IV, of Jay Evans Consulting LLC was appointed the tinuation; Harvey Berlin, who saw the Interim Handbook through co-Principal Investigator. Lead Handbook chapter authors and co- to Website publication; and Stephan A. Parker, who is guiding the authors, in addition to Mr. Pratt, are Mr. Evans (initially with Parsons entire project to its complete fruition. Editor Natassja Linzau is Brinckerhoff); Dr. Turnbull; Frank Spielberg of BMI-SG; Brian E. providing her careful examination and fine touch, while Managing McCollom of McCollom Management Consulting, Inc.; Erin Vaca Editor Eileen Delaney and her team are handling all the numerous of Cambridge Systematics, Inc.; J. Richard Kuzmyak, initially of publication details. The efforts of all are greatly appreciated. Cambridge Systematics and now of J. Richard Kuzmyak, L.L.C.; Continued recognition is due to the participants in the develop- and Dr. G. Bruce Douglas of PB Consult. Contributing authors ment of the First and Second Editions, key elements of which are include Herbert S. Levinson, Transportation Consultant; Dr. Kiran retained. Co-authors to Mr. Pratt were Neil J. Pedersen and Joseph U. Bhatt, K.T. Analytics, Inc.; Shawn M. Turner, Texas Transpor- J. Mather for the First Edition, and John N. Copple for the Second tation Institute; Dr. Rachel Weinberger, Cambridge Systematics Edition. Crucial support and guidance for both editions was pro- (now with the University of Pennsylvania); Andrew Stryker, PB vided by the Federal Highway Administration's Technical Repre- Consult; and Dr. C. Y. Jeng, Gallop Corporation. sentative (COTR), Louise E. Skinner. Other research agency team members contributing to the In the TCRP Report 95 edition, John (Jay) Evans is the lead preparatory research, synthesis of information, and development of author for this volume: Chapter 5, "Vanpools and Buspools." Con- this Handbook have been Stephen Farnsworth, Laura Higgins, and tributing author for Chapter 5 is Richard H. Pratt. Rachel Donovan of the Texas Transportation Institute; Nick Vlahos, Participation by the profession at large has been absolutely Vicki Ruiter, and Karen Higgins of Cambridge Systematics, Inc.; essential to the development of the Handbook and this chapter. Lydia Wong, Gordon Schultz, Bill Davidson, and G.B. Arrington Members of volunteer Review Groups, established for each chap- of Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas, Inc./PB Consult Inc.; ter, reviewed outlines, provided leads, and in many cases undertook Kris Jagarapu of BMI-SG; Sarah Dowling of Jay Evans Consulting substantive reviews. Though all members who assisted are not LLC; and Laura C. (Peggy) Pratt of Richard H. Pratt, Consultant, listed here in the interests of brevity, their contribution is truly val- Inc. As Principal Investigator, Mr. Pratt has participated iteratively ued. A Chapter 5 review was undertaken by Review Group mem- and substantively in the development of each chapter. Dr. C. Y. Jeng ber Don Ward, and William G. Allen, Jr., stepped in to provide an of Gallop Corporation has provided pre-publication numerical qual- additional outside review. ity control review. By special arrangement, Dr. Daniel B. Rathbone Finally, sincere thanks are due to the many practitioners and of The Urban Transportation Monitor searched past issues. Assis- researchers who were contacted for information and unstintingly tance in word processing, graphics and other essential support supplied both that and all manner of statistics, data compilations, has been provided by Bonnie Duke and Pam Rowe of the Texas and reports. Though not feasible to list here, many appear in the Transportation Institute; Karen Applegate, Laura Reseigh, Stephen "References" section entries of this and other chapters.

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CHAPTER 5--VANPOOLS AND BUSPOOLS CONTENTS Overview and Summary, 5-1 Response to Vanpool and Buspool Programs, 5-6 Underlying Traveler Response Factors, 5-19 Related Information and Impacts, 5-28 Additional Resources, 5-41 Case Studies, 5-41 References, 5-49 How to Order TCRP Report 95, 5-55