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15 the archaeology done on the site will help strengthen the tribal issues, tribal pressure during the above-mentioned archaeological and historical fabric of the area. Swift noted project, and programmatic approaches to consultation. that the DOT tried their best to meet the many demands of the multiple groups involved. ENGAGING THE PUBLIC The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reserva- tion in Oregon developed a good, cooperative relationship The majority of the DOTs' public outreach efforts are project- with the Oregon DOT as a result of the inadvertent destruc- specific and often ad hoc, involving the development of a tion by that agency of an archaeological site 8 years before. temporary exhibit on an excavation, a brochure, site tours, or After the site had been destroyed, the tribe monitored the bal- public lectures. A few states, however, have strategically ance of the project to prevent further archaeological site placed public outreach as an important component of their destruction. The tribe also negotiated with the DOT to per- archaeological investigations. form more "traditional use area" identification efforts. Cur- rently, the tribe and DOT are working closely together on a The Pennsylvania DOT (PennDOT) regularly publishes, number of bridge projects that have the potential to affect through the Department's Byways to the Past series, small, important archaeological sites. One valuable result of this publicly oriented booklets on its archaeological data recov- collaboration is the willingness of the DOT to use ethno- ery projects. The DOT also has a Byways to the Past Techni- graphic research during initial National Register eligibility cal Publication Series. The latter distributes the results of evaluations. The tribe feels that this approach is a less PennDOT-sponsored research in archaeology, including destructive method for assessing potential archaeological site large-scale data recovery projects, to professional archaeol- significance. ogists and the interested public. The reports in this series are distributed on CDs. In the past, the Delaware DOT has During the Arizona State Road 85 project between Gila printed and distributed 500 copies of its archaeological Bend and Buckeye, the Gila River Indian Community reports for both the public and professionals. Currently, the (GRIC) consulted with the Arizona DOT to minimize Delaware DOT is focusing on distributing reports through impacts to resources of value to the tribe. Previous cultural the Internet and the use of CDs. resource surveys identified 47 prehistoric and historic trails running across the existing highway. Inventories The New Jersey DOT, in consultation with the SHPO, conducted by GRIC's Cultural Resource Management Pro- created a publicly oriented website reporting on all phases of gram showed that many of the trails were traditional cul- an archaeological data recovery within the Raritan Landing tural properties. GRIC's Cultural Resource Management Archaeological Historic District, near New Brunswick, New Program mapped and recorded a sample of the trails on Jersey. The website was continually updated as the project either side of the highway to assist in evaluating potential generated new information. This website experienced impacts from proposed road improvements. As a result, approximately 57,000 visits during the 4-year project. The 49 miles of trails were examined, and the results of this New Jersey SHPO noted that this and similar websites are study were used to create an exhibit at the tribe's new her- popular with the general public and with professional and itage facility. avocational archaeologists. The primary data recovery report for the Raritan Landing project is being written in a public- Russell Townsend, the EBCI's THPO, provided another friendly narrative form in contrast with the normal, volumi- case from Tennessee that illustrates how an initially negative nous, jargon-filled technical report. Technical information is situation resulted in a more collaborative relationship provided in stand-alone reports for both professional archae- between a tribe and a DOT. The Tennessee DOT began a ologists and the interested public. road widening project in the late 1990s, but never consulted with the tribe. Construction was eventually halted owing to Caltrans has produced documentary videos as part of sev- tribal concerns. The EBCI, FHWA, and Tennessee DOT sub- eral major data recovery projects. One example is "Privies to sequently executed an MOA outlining how archaeological the Past," a documentary on historic archaeology in West investigations would be conducted, and required that human Oakland. This video was produced as part of the rebuilding remains be left in place. A cement cap would be placed over of the Cypress Freeway after an earthquake. A second exam- the remains to protect them from heavy equipment. Since this ple is "The Obsidian Trail," a video on the archaeology of the project, the Tennessee DOT has begun to work more closely Owens Valley, with special emphasis on information gained with the EBCI. The tribe now sends representatives and tra- from the study of obsidian artifacts. This video was produced ditional leaders to Tennessee to rebury materials encountered in conjunction with a series of mitigation projects for the on agency projects. The tribe, FHWA, and Tennessee DOT widening of Highway 395. Both videos have been shown are also meeting more regularly. These meetings are used to nationally on public broadcasting stations. review the status of ongoing projects. The EBCI attributes these improved relations with the Tennessee DOT to three Some DOTs also publish small, publicly oriented book- factors: increased FHWA involvement with the DOT on lets as part of their data recovery efforts. Two examples are