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26 resource potential. These locations are indicated on highway defines the strategies for future archaeological investiga- maps used by maintenance crews, and the GIS program tions in these areas (29). informs maintenance when it needs to coordinate with archaeology staff to ensure that no sites will be affected by its activities. The Wisconsin DOT also has an archaeological GEOARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS database for ROWs in three of its state districts. The database AS PLANNING TOOL records the National Register status of archaeological sites and indicates site locations that have not been evaluated. The Several state DOTs are using geoarchaeology as a tool for database is used by the DOT's real estate, utilities, and main- assessing the presence and physical integrity of buried archae- tenance offices. It is also used to a lesser extent by planning ological sites within proposed project areas. Geoarchaeology and design offices. Caltrans has a Transportation Enhance- links archaeological methods with the concepts and methods ment grant to identify known archaeological sites within its of earth sciences, such as geology, pedology (i.e., the study of ROW, to carry out surveys to identify new sites in the ROW, soils), and sedimentology (i.e., the study of sediments and and to develop a GIS database on these archaeological sedimentation processes). TxDOT, for example, has devel- resources. oped a unique archaeological GIS database and predictive model based on geoarchaeological data. This database, which The Arizona DOT has developed an internal web-based focuses on the Houston area, is referred to as the Potential portal for the storage and retrieval of electronic cultural Archeological Liability Map (PALM). The database was cre- resource survey data. All CRM-related survey documents ated with input from the Texas SHPO and outside peer (including consultation letters) produced since 1985 have reviewers. The database does not predict where archaeologi- been scanned and entered into the portal. Cultural resource cal sites will occur, but instead estimates the likelihood of survey data can be retrieved either though a text search encountering sites within a project's area of potential effects engine or through a GIS interface. The GIS also includes the that will be eligible for listing on the National Register. locations of historic properties, including archaeological PALM provides a visual representation of "geoarcheological sites. Portal users can upload new information and add to potential." Geoarcheological potential refers to the probabil- existing information in the database. With this system in ity of archaeological sites having enough integrity to make place the Arizona DOT has improved the efficiency of proj- them eligible for the NRHP. The geological conditions of an ect planning and design by providing immediate access to area reflect its natural formation processes, which in turn CRM data using computers in the DOT's offices (S. Lane, affect the integrity of archaeological contexts. By assessing personal communication, 2004). integrity, based on the geological environment, the DOT can estimate the chances of encountering an eligible archaeolog- ical site without conducting fieldwork. This program serves PREDICTIVE MODELING (NONCOMPUTERIZED) as an effective tool for evaluating the impacts of project alter- natives on significant archaeological resources (30). Some states that have not developed computerized archae- ological predictive models use environmentally based cor- In Wyoming, the Department of Energy, state Bureau of relation models to assist in project planning. The Ohio DOT Land Management, SHPO, Western Wyoming College, and has developed five archaeological predictive models for a geoarchaeological consultant are developing a predictive five physiographic regions of the state, providing a baseline model to assess the probability of encountering buried to evaluate archaeological survey and site evaluation needs archaeological site locations. This is being done to improve for projects. Once developed, the models are tested and and streamline environmental compliance and review for oil refined through subsequent survey projects in the regions and gas exploration. The Wyoming DOT is providing tech- covered by the models. The results of these surveys are nical reviews for the model development. The DOT plans to incorporated into the DOT's and SHPO's GIS database use the results of this project as a transportation planning management systems. tool. The resulting model will be posted on the Internet on a website maintained by the SHPO. The Ohio models are based on the analysis of data from previous archaeological studies and environmental The Minnesota DOT is conducting a "Deep Testing Proto- research. The DOT creates two tables to convey the col" project to develop a set of statewide standards for field expected correlations between site occurrence and environ- methods, reporting, and preliminary site evaluations. The proj- mental setting within a region. The first table predicts ect includes geomorphological and archaeological research which site types will be found in certain settings and the and analyses and field testing. An important goal of this proj- potential National Register eligibility of those sites. The ect is to define the most effective geoarchaeological field second table outlines the estimated information yields and methods for each of the state's environmental settings. Once recommended investigation strategies for sites, given the the project is completed, the DOT, SHPO, and state archaeol- environmental setting. Using these tables, the DOT outlines ogist will develop an agreement on the implementation of the where sites are likely to be found in a project area and selected protocols for future archaeological investigations.