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10 which subsequently served as the foundation for the confer- effectiveness of archaeological investigations (15). Chapter ence's recommended action plans: two, therefore, examines practices that improve and main- tain good communication, including communication Pre-project planning--integrating cultural and natural between agencies and Native American tribes and efforts to resources early in pre-project planning and program- engage the public. Another factor that influences the effec- ming, re-energizing the development and appropriate tiveness of archaeological investigations (and Section 106 use of historic contexts, and examining pre-project plan- compliance) is the nature of internal state DOT business ning models. practices, which include the structure and function of Improving the Section 106 process and project delivery-- archaeological divisions within a DOT. Chapter three improving mitigation efforts, creating consistent ap- reviews internal business practices within state DOTs. This proaches for assessing National Register eligibility and chapter also examines effective and innovative practices to project effects, and developing state-based streamlining integrating Section 106, NEPA, and project design, partic- agreements. ularly in terms of the timing and level of effort for archae- Communication--enhancing public benefits, developing ological investigations during the project development guidance on tribal consultation, and emphasizing context- process. Chapter four focuses on nonproject-specific efforts sensitive design in terms of historic preservation. that streamline future project delivery and review. These Funding--fully funding the Historic Preservation Fund, pre-project planning efforts include programmatic agree- setting aside FHWA grant program funds for historic ments (PAs), IT/information management tools (such as preservation offices (HPOs), and presenting examples GIS databases and computerized archaeological predictive and evidence on the value of pre-planning to agency models), and syntheses and treatment guidance on specific leaders. categories of archaeological resources. Chapter five exam- IT/information management systems--creating a model ines practices that improve the basic steps in the Section DOT information clearinghouse website, designing a 106 process. These practices include the use of geophysical model project activity tracking program, and fostering methods as a tool for archaeological resource identification and improving tribal IT. and NRHP evaluation, flexible and staged data recovery strategies, and creative approaches to resolving adverse A preliminary draft of the conference recommendations and effects on archaeological sites. As part of the survey, each the action plans are presented in Appendix C. person was asked to describe the obstacles they encoun- tered when they tried to implement an innovative approach. ORGANIZATION OF REPORT These obstacles are reviewed in chapter six. The results of this synthesis study are summarized in chapter seven, As demonstrated by the synthesis survey responses and the focusing on areas of future research and needs identified by 2004 Santa Fe conference, communication (both internal the state DOTs, FHWA, SHPOs, tribal representatives, and and external to state DOTs) is critical to the success and private-sector firms.