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NATIONAL NCHRP REPORT 543 COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Effective Slab Width for Composite Steel Bridge Members

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TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 2005 (Membership as of March 2005) OFFICERS Chair: Joseph H. Boardman, Commissioner, New York State DOT Vice Chair: Michael D. Meyer, Professor, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology Executive Director: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS MICHAEL W. BEHRENS, Executive Director, Texas DOT LARRY L. BROWN, SR., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT DEBORAH H. BUTLER, Vice President, Customer Service, Norfolk Southern Corporation and Subsidiaries, Atlanta, GA ANNE P. CANBY, President, Surface Transportation Policy Project, Washington, DC JOHN L. CRAIG, Director, Nebraska Department of Roads DOUGLAS G. DUNCAN, President and CEO, FedEx Freight, Memphis, TN NICHOLAS J. GARBER, Professor of Civil Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville ANGELA GITTENS, Consultant, Miami, FL GENEVIEVE GIULIANO, Director, Metrans Transportation Center, and Professor, School of Policy, Planning, and Development, USC, Los Angeles BERNARD S. GROSECLOSE, JR., President and CEO, South Carolina State Ports Authority SUSAN HANSON, Landry University Professor of Geography, Graduate School of Geography, Clark University JAMES R. HERTWIG, President, CSX Intermodal, Jacksonville, FL GLORIA J. JEFF, Director, Michigan DOT ADIB K. KANAFANI, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley HERBERT S. LEVINSON, Principal, Herbert S. Levinson Transportation Consultant, New Haven, CT SUE MCNEIL, Director and Professor, Urban Transportation Center, University of Illinois, Chicago MICHAEL MORRIS, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments CAROL A. MURRAY, Commissioner, New Hampshire DOT JOHN R. NJORD, Executive Director, Utah DOT PHILIP A. SHUCET, Commissioner, Virginia DOT MICHAEL S. TOWNES, President and CEO, Hampton Roads Transit, Hampton, VA C. MICHAEL WALTON, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin LINDA S. WATSON, Executive Director, LYNX--Central Florida Regional Transportation Authority MARION C. BLAKEY, Federal Aviation Administrator, U.S.DOT (ex officio) REBECCA M. BREWSTER, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA (ex officio) GEORGE BUGLIARELLO, Chancellor, Polytechnic University, and Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering (ex officio) THOMAS H. COLLINS (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard (ex officio) JENNIFER L. DORN, Federal Transit Administrator, U.S.DOT (ex officio) JAMES J. EBERHARDT, Chief Scientist, Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies, U.S. Department of Energy (ex officio) STACEY L. GERARD, Acting Deputy Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S.DOT (ex officio) EDWARD R. HAMBERGER, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads (ex officio) JOHN C. HORSLEY, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (ex officio) ROBERT D. JAMISON, Acting Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT (ex officio) EDWARD JOHNSON, Director, Applied Science Directorate, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (ex officio) RICK KOWALEWSKI, Deputy Director, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, U.S.DOT (ex officio) WILLIAM W. MILLAR, President, American Public Transportation Association (ex officio) MARY E. PETERS, Federal Highway Administrator, U.S.DOT (ex officio) ERIC C. PETERSON, Deputy Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT (ex officio) SUZANNE RUDZINSKI, Director, Transportation and Regional Programs, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (ex officio) JEFFREY W. RUNGE, National Highway Traffic Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT (ex officio) ANNETTE M. SANDBERG, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT (ex officio) WILLIAM G. SCHUBERT, Maritime Administrator, U.S.DOT (ex officio) JEFFREY N. SHANE, Under Secretary for Policy, U.S.DOT (ex officio) CARL A. STROCK (Maj. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (ex officio) NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Transportation Research Board Executive Committee Subcommittee for NCHRP JOSEPH H. BOARDMAN, New York State DOT (Chair) MARY E. PETERS, Federal Highway Administration JOHN C. HORSLEY, American Association of State Highway ROBERT E. SKINNER, JR., Transportation Research Board and Transportation Officials MICHAEL S. TOWNES, Hampton Roads Transit, Hampton, VA MICHAEL D. MEYER, Georgia Institute of Technology C. MICHAEL WALTON, University of Texas, Austin

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM NCHRP REPORT 543 Effective Slab Width for Composite Steel Bridge Members S.S. CHEN, A.J. AREF, I.S. AHN, M. CHIEWANICHAKORN J.A. CARPENTER, A. NOTTIS, AND I. KALPAKIDIS Department of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering State University of New York at Buffalo Buffalo, NY S UBJECT A REAS Bridges, Other Structures, and Hydraulics and Hydrology Research Sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in Cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2005 www.TRB.org

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH NCHRP REPORT 543 PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed research provides the most effective Project 12-58 approach to the solution of many problems facing highway administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local ISSN 0077-5614 interest and can best be studied by highway departments ISBN 0-309-08834-8 individually or in cooperation with their state universities and Library of Congress Control Number 2005906168 others. However, the accelerating growth of highway transportation develops increasingly complex problems of wide interest to 2005 Transportation Research Board highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. Price $37.00 In recognition of these needs, the highway administrators of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials initiated in 1962 an objective national highway research program employing modern scientific techniques. This program is supported on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of the Association and it receives the full cooperation and support of the Federal Highway Administration, United States NOTICE Department of Transportation. The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National Cooperative The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies Highway Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the was requested by the Association to administer the research approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such approval program because of the Board's recognized objectivity and reflects the Governing Board's judgment that the program concerned is of national understanding of modern research practices. The Board is uniquely importance and appropriate with respect to both the purposes and resources of the suited for this purpose as it maintains an extensive committee National Research Council. structure from which authorities on any highway transportation The members of the technical committee selected to monitor this project and to review subject may be drawn; it possesses avenues of communications and this report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due cooperation with federal, state and local governmental agencies, consideration for the balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and universities, and industry; its relationship to the National Research conclusions expressed or implied are those of the research agency that performed the Council is an insurance of objectivity; it maintains a full-time research, and, while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical committee, research correlation staff of specialists in highway transportation they are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National matters to bring the findings of research directly to those who are in Research Council, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation a position to use them. Officials, or the Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. The program is developed on the basis of research needs Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical committee identified by chief administrators of the highway and transportation according to procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research departments and by committees of AASHTO. Each year, specific Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research areas of research needs to be included in the program are proposed Council. to the National Research Council and the Board by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. Research projects to fulfill these needs are defined by the Board, and qualified research agencies are selected from those that have submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Research Council and the Transportation Research Board. Published reports of the The needs for highway research are many, and the National NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Cooperative Highway Research Program can make significant contributions to the solution of highway transportation problems of are available from: mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement rather than to substitute for or Transportation Research Board duplicate other highway research programs. Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: Note: The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, the Federal Highway Administration, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, and the individual http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore states participating in the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of this report. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished schol- ars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and techni- cal matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Acad- emy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achieve- ments of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Acad- emy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both the Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. William A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is a division of the National Research Council, which serves the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering. The Board's mission is to promote innovation and progress in transportation through research. In an objective and interdisciplinary setting, the Board facilitates the sharing of information on transportation practice and policy by researchers and practitioners; stimulates research and offers research management services that promote technical excellence; provides expert advice on transportation policy and programs; and disseminates research results broadly and encourages their implementation. The Board's varied activities annually engage more than 5,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS STAFF FOR NCHRP REPORT 543 ROBERT J. REILLY, Director, Cooperative Research Programs CRAWFORD F. JENCKS, Manager, NCHRP DAVID B. BEAL, Senior Program Officer EILEEN P. DELANEY, Director of Publications HILARY FREER, Editor ANDREA BRIERE, Editor NCHRP PROJECT 12-58 PANEL Field of Design--Area of Bridges EDWARD P. WASSERMAN, Tennessee DOT (Chair) SCOT BECKER, Wisconsin DOT NATHAN S. BROWN, Washington State DOT THOMAS DOMAGALSKI, Illinois DOT LIAN DUAN, California DOT DACIO MARIN, III, Texas DOT JOHN O'FALLON, FHWA Liaison STEPHEN F. MAHER, TRB Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was performed under NCHRP Proj- an English translation of the effective width criteria found in ect 12-58 by the Department of Civil, Structural and Environmental the Japanese code and information about girder spacing prac- Engineering at the University at Buffalo (UB), State University of tices in Japan, respectively; New York (SUNY). UB was the contractor for this study, with the Mr. G. Booth, Dr. J-P. Lebet, and Mr. Joel Raoul, who pro- Research Foundation of SUNY serving as Fiscal Administrator. vided information about British, Swiss/Eurocode, and French Dr. Stuart S. Chen, P.E., Associate Professor of Civil Engineering effective width practices, respectively; at UB, was the Project Director and co-Principal Investigator. The Dr. H. Gil of the Korea Highway Corporation, who provided other authors of this report are Dr. Amjad J. Aref, Associate Profes- information about recent effective width studies on a cable- sor of Civil Engineering at UB and co-Principal Investigator; stayed bridge in Korea; IlSang Ahn, Research Assistant and Ph.D. Candidate at UB; Dr. R.Q. Bridge of University of Western Sydney, who pro- Methee Chiewanichakorn, Research Assistant and Ph.D. Candidate vided information about Australian effective width practices; at UB; and Aaron Nottis, Jeffrey Carpenter, and Ioannis Kalpakidis, Mr. I. Savage of Parsons Transportation Group, who provided Research Assistants and M.S. Candidates at UB. The work was done information about a recent effective width study on a major under the general supervision of Professors Chen and Aref at UB. box girder crossing; Others assisting in contributing or pointing to material used in Dr. David Byers of HNTB and Mr. Michael Abrahams of Par- this report, all of whose assistance is gratefully acknowledged, sons Brinckerhoff and Palmetto Bridge Constructors for pro- include the following: viding access to material and geometric property data used in modeling and analysis of selected cable-stayed bridges for Various state bridge engineers and TRB representatives who effective width; responded to a survey seeking information relevant to the Technical staff (Scot Weinreber, Duane Kozlowski, Mark Pit- present study; man, Chris Budd) in the SEESL (Structural Engineering and Mr. Arun Shirole of Arora and Associates, Mr. Ayaz Malik of Earthquake Simulation Laboratory), of which A. Reinhorn the New York State Department of Transportation, and Mr. and M. Constantinou are Co-Directors in the Department of Peter Stapf of the New York State Thruway Authority, who Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering at UB; and served as members of the Industry Advisory Panel; Technical assistance in the laboratory provided by Guarav Dr. Y. Kitane, a former Ph.D. Candidate at UB, and Dr. S. Unjoh Shringarpure, William Lane, and Chad Liddell. of the Public Works Research Institute of Japan, who provided

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This report contains the findings of research performed to develop expressions for FOREWORD the effective slab width of composite steel bridge members. Recommended specifica- By David B. Beal tions and commentary and examples illustrating the application of the specifications Staff Officer were also developed. The material in this report will be of immediate interest to bridge Transportation Research designers. Board The determination of the section properties of composite steel bridge members is influenced by the effective slab width assumed in their calculation. These section prop- erties include the stiffness, which is used to determine the distribution of forces in the structure, and the section modulus, which is used to determine the stresses induced in the member by these forces. As such, the determination of effective slab width directly affects the computed moments, shears, torques, and deflections for the composite sec- tion and also affects the proportions of the steel section and the number of shear con- nectors required. The effective slab width is particularly important for serviceability checks, which often can govern the design. In AASHTO bridge design specifications, the slab width effective for composite action for all types of bridge superstructures, except for segmental concrete structures, is specified as the least of (1) 12 times the least thickness of the deck plus one-half the top flange width, (2) one-fourth the span length of the girder, or (3) the girder spacing. For girder spacings 8 feet or less, the effective width computed according to this pro- vision generally includes all of the deck. With the ever-increasing use of wider girder spacing, the contribution of the additional width of deck is not fully recognized. The AASHTO Guide Specifications for Segmental Concrete Bridges recognize the entire deck width to be effective unless shear lag adjustments become necessary. Field mea- surements of modern composite steel bridges indicate that recognition of more of the concrete deck often is necessary to better correlate actual with calculated deflections. The objective of this research was to develop recommended revisions to the AASHTO specifications for the effective slab width of composite steel bridge mem- bers. The recommended specifications are applicable to all types of composite steel bridge superstructures and are suitable for design office use. This research was per- formed by the State University of New York at Buffalo. The report fully documents the research leading to the recommendations to increase the effective slab width estimates for composite steel bridge members. Accompanying CRP-CD-56 contains extensive supporting information, including the recommended specifications and design exam- ples. AASHTO is expected to consider these recommendations for adoption in 2006.

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CONTENTS 1 SUMMARY 2 CHAPTER 1 Introduction and Research Approach 1.1 Problem Statement and Project Objectives, 2 1.2 Research Tasks, 3 1.3 Research Approach, 4 1.4 Organization of this Report, 5 6 CHAPTER 2 Findings 2.1 Survey and Literature Review Findings, 6 2.2 New Definition for Effective Width, 8 2.3 Finite Element Modeling and Verification, 9 2.4 FEM Parametric Study, 24 2.5 Special Case Bridges, 39 59 CHAPTER 3 Interpretation, Appraisal, and Applications 3.1 Introduction, 59 3.2 Assumptions and Implications, 59 3.3 Design Criteria Development, 60 3.4 Impact Assessment of Candidate Design Criteria, 60 3.5 Proposed Design Criteria, 63 3.6 Implementation Example, 64 3.7 Summary, 64 66 CHAPTER 4 Conclusions and Suggested Research 4.1 Conclusions, 66 4.2 Implementation Plan, 66 4.3 Suggested Research, 66 69 REFERENCES 70 NOTATIONS A-1 APPENDIXES A through L (provided on the enclosed CD-ROM, CRP-CD-56) M-i APPENDIX M: Draft Code and Commentary Language N-1 APPENDIX N (provided on the enclosed CD-ROM, CRP-CD-56) O-1 APPENDIX O: Design Examples