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TRANSIT TCRP SYNTHESIS 60 COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration Practices in No-Show and Late Cancellation Policies for ADA Paratransit A Synthesis of Transit Practice

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TCRP OVERSIGHT AND PROJECT TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 2005 (Membership as of July 2005) SELECTION COMMITTEE (as of February 2005) OFFICERS CHAIR Chair: John R. Njord, Executive Director, Utah DOT SHARON GREENE Vice Chair: Michael D. Meyer, Professor, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sharon Greene & Associates Georgia Institute of Technology Executive Director: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS LINDA J. BOHLINGER MEMBERS HNTB Corp. ROBERT I. BROWNSTEIN MICHAEL W. BEHRENS, Executive Director, Texas DOT Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas, Inc. ALLEN D. BIEHLER, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT PETER CANNITO LARRY L. BROWN, SR., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT Metropolitan Transit Authority--Metro North DEBORAH H. BUTLER, Vice Pres., Customer Service, Norfolk Southern Corporation and Subsidiaries, Railroad Atlanta, GA GREGORY COOK ANNE P. CANBY, President, Surface Transportation Policy Project, Washington, DC Ann Arbor Transportation Authority JOHN L. CRAIG, Director, Nebraska Department of Roads JENNIFER L. DORN DOUGLAS G. DUNCAN, President and CEO, FedEx Freight, Memphis, TN FTA NICHOLAS J. GARBER, Professor of Civil Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville NATHANIEL P. FORD ANGELA GITTENS, Consultant, Miami, FL Metropolitan Atlanta RTA GENEVIEVE GIULIANO, Director, Metrans Transportation Center, and Professor, School of Policy, RONALD L. FREELAND Parsons Transportation Group Planning, and Development, USC, Los Angeles FRED M. GILLIAM BERNARD S. GROSECLOSE, JR., President and CEO, South Carolina State Ports Authority Capital Metropolitan Transportation Authority SUSAN HANSON, Landry University Professor of Geography, Graduate School of Geography, Clark University KIM R. GREEN JAMES R. HERTWIG, President, CSX Intermodal, Jacksonville, FL GFI GENFARE GLORIA J. JEFF, Director, Michigan DOT JILL A. HOUGH ADIB K. KANAFANI, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley North Dakota State University HERBERT S. LEVINSON, Principal, Herbert S. Levinson Transportation Consultant, New Haven, CT JOHN INGLISH SUE MCNEIL, Director and Professor, Urban Transportation Center, University of Illinois, Chicago Utah Transit Authority MICHAEL MORRIS, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments ROBERT H. IRWIN CAROL A. MURRAY, Commissioner, New Hampshire DOT British Columbia Transit MICHAEL S. TOWNES, President and CEO, Hampton Roads Transit, Hampton, VA JEANNE W. KRIEG C. MICHAEL WALTON, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin Eastern Contra Costa Transit Authority LINDA S. WATSON, Executive Director, LYNX--Central Florida Regional Transportation Authority CELIA G. KUPERSMITH Golden Gate Bridge, Highway EX OFFICIO MEMBERS and Transportation District PAUL J. LARROUSSE MARION C. BLAKEY, Federal Aviation Administrator, U.S.DOT National Transit Institute JOSEPH H. BOARDMAN, Federal Railroad Administrator, U.S.DOT DAVID A. LEE REBECCA M. BREWSTER, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA Connecticut Transit GEORGE BUGLIARELLO, Chancellor, Polytechnic University, and Foreign Secretary, National Academy CLARENCE W. MARSELLA of Engineering Denver Regional Transportation District THOMAS H. COLLINS (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard FAYE L. M. MOORE JENNIFER L. DORN, Federal Transit Administrator, U.S.DOT Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority JAMES J. EBERHARDT, Chief Scientist, Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies, MICHAEL H. MULHERN U.S. Department of Energy Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority EDWARD R. HAMBERGER, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads STEPHANIE L. PINSON JOHN C. HORSLEY, Exec. Dir., American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials Gilbert Tweed Associates, Inc. EDWARD JOHNSON, Director, Applied Science Directorate, National Aeronautics and Space Administration ROBERT H. PRINCE, JR. ASHOK G. KAVEESHWAR, Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT DMJM+Harris RICK KOWALEWSKI, Deputy Director, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, U.S.DOT JEFFREY M. ROSENBERG BRIGHAM McCOWN, Deputy Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Amalgamated Transit Union WILLIAM W. MILLAR, President, American Public Transportation Association BEVERLY SCOTT MARY E. PETERS, Federal Highway Administrator, U.S.DOT Sacramento Regional Transit District SUZANNE RUDZINSKI, Director, Transportation and Regional Programs, U.S. EPA PAUL P. SKOUTELAS JEFFREY W. RUNGE, National Highway Traffic Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT Port Authority of Allegheny County ANNETTE M. SANDBERG, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT KATHRYN D. WATERS WILLIAM G. SCHUBERT, Maritime Administrator, U.S.DOT Dallas Area Rapid Transit JEFFREY N. SHANE, Under Secretary for Policy, U.S.DOT EX OFFICIO MEMBERS CARL A. STROCK (Maj. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps WILLIAM W. MILLAR of Engineers APTA ROBERT E. SKINNER, JR. TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM TRB JOHN C. HORSLEY Transportation Research Board Executive Committee Subcommittee for TCRP AASHTO JOHN R. NJORD, Utah DOT (Chair) MARY E. PETERS JENNIFER L. DORN, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT FHWA MICHAEL D. MEYER, Georgia Institute of Technology WILLIAM W. MILLAR, American Public Transportation Association TDC EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR ROBERT E. SKINNER, JR., Transportation Research Board LOUIS SANDERS APTA MICHAEL S. TOWNES, Hampton Roads Transit, Hampton, VA C. MICHAEL WALTON, University of Texas, Austin SECRETARY LINDA S. WATSON, LYNX--Central Florida Regional Transportation Authority ROBERT J. REILLY TRB

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TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM TCRP SYNTHESIS 60 Practices in No-Show and Late Cancellation Policies for ADA Paratransit A Synthesis of Transit Practice CONSULTANT ROSEMARY G. MATHIAS TranSystems Corporation Norwich, Vermont TOPIC PANEL ALEX CISNEROS, New Jersey Transit MARILYN GOLDEN, Disability Rights Education and Defense Fund JAY A. GOODWILL, University of South Florida JAMES LAUGHLIN, Metropolitan Transit Authority of Harris County (TX) JAMES F. McLAUGHLIN, Urbitran Associates TOBY OLSON, Washington State Governor's Committee on Disability Issues and Employment ROBERT RIZZO, Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority PETER SHAW, Transportation Research Board ANTONIO STEVENS, Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority NANCY ODY, Federal Transit Administration (Liaison) S UBJECT A REAS Public Transit Research Sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration in Cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2005 www.TRB.org

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TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM TCRP SYNTHESIS 60 The nation's growth and the need to meet mobility, environ- Project J-7, Topic SB-11 mental, and energy objectives place demands on public transit ISSN 1073-4880 systems. Current systems, some of which are old and in need of ISBN 0-309-09751-7 upgrading, must expand service area, increase service frequency, Library of Congress Control Number 2005926686 and improve efficiency to serve these demands. Research is nec- essary to solve operating problems, to adapt appropriate new 2005 Transportation Research Board technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the transit industry. The Transit Cooperative Research Pro- Price $16.00 gram (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the transit industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to NOTICE meet demands placed on it. The need for TCRP was originally identified in TRB Special The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Transit Report 213--Research for Public Transit: New Directions, pub- Cooperative Research Program conducted by the Transportation Re- lished in 1987 and based on a study sponsored by the Federal search Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the Na- Transit Administration (FTA). A report by the American Public tional Research Council. Such approval reflects the Governing Transportation Association (APTA), Transportation 2000, also Board's judgment that the project concerned is appropriate with re- recognized the need for local, problem-solving research. TCRP, spect to both the purposes and resources of the National Research modeled after the longstanding and successful National Coopera- Council. tive Highway Research Program, undertakes research and other The members of the technical advisory panel selected to monitor technical activities in response to the needs of transit service provid- this project and to review this report were chosen for recognized ers. The scope of TCRP includes a variety of transit research scholarly competence and with due consideration for the balance of fields including planning, service configuration, equipment, fa- disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions cilities, operations, human resources, maintenance, policy, and ad- expressed or implied are those of the research agency that performed ministrative practices. the research, and while they have been accepted as appropriate by TCRP was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992. the technical panel, they are not necessarily those of the Transporta- Proposed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, TCRP was tion Research Board, the Transit Development Corporation, the Na- authorized as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Effi- tional Research Council, or the Federal Transit Administration of the ciency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). On May 13, 1992, a memorandum U.S. Department of Transportation. agreement outlining TCRP operating procedures was executed by Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the tech- the three cooperating organizations: FTA, the National Academy of nical panel according to procedures established and monitored by Sciences, acting through the Transportation Research Board the Transportation Research Board Executive Committee and the (TRB); and the Transit Development Corporation, Inc. (TDC), a Governing Board of the National Research Council. nonprofit educational and research organization established by APTA. TDC is responsible for forming the independent govern- ing board, designated as the TCRP Oversight and Project Selec- tion (TOPS) Committee. Special Notice Research problem statements for TCRP are solicited periodi- cally but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is The Transportation Research Board of The National Academies, the responsibility of the TOPS Committee to formulate the re- the Transit Development Corporation, the National Research Coun- search program by identifying the highest priority projects. As cil, and the Federal Transit Administration (sponsor of the Transit part of the evaluation, the TOPS Committee defines funding Cooperative Research Program) do not endorse products or manu- levels and expected products. facturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein solely be- Once selected, each project is assigned to an expert panel, ap- cause they are considered essential to the clarity and complete- pointed by TRB. The panels prepare project statements (requests ness of the project reporting. for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooperative re- Published reports of the search programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, TCRP TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Because research cannot have the desired impact if products are available from: fail to reach the intended audience, special emphasis is placed on disseminating TCRP results to the intended end users of the re- Transportation Research Board search: transit agencies, service providers, and suppliers. TRB Business Office provides a series of research reports, syntheses of transit practice, 500 Fifth Street, NW and other supporting material developed by TCRP research. Washington, DC 20001 APTA will arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by urban and rural transit industry practitioners. and can be ordered through the Internet at The TCRP provides a forum where transit agencies can coop- eratively address common operational problems. The TCRP results http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore support and complement other ongoing transit research and train- ing programs. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished schol- ars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and techni- cal matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Acad- emy of Sciences, The National as a parallel Academy organization of Sciences of outstanding is a private, nonprofit,engineers. It is autonomous self-perpetuating society of in its administration distinguished schol- andengaged ars in the selection of its in scientific members, and sharing engineering with the research, National dedicated Academy to of Sciences the furtherance the responsibility of science for and technology advising and the federal to their use for government. The National the general welfare. Academy On the of Engineering authority of the charteralso sponsors granted engineering to it programs by the Congress in aimed the 1863, at meeting Academy national needs, encourages has a mandate education that requires andthe it to advise research, federal and recognizes government on the superior scientific andachieve- techni- ments cal of engineers. matters. Dr. Dr. Ralph J.William CiceroneA.isWulf is president president of the National of the National AcademyAcademy of Engineering. of Sciences. The National The Institute Academy of Medicine was established of Engineering wasin 1970 by the established National in 1964, underAcademy of Sciences the charter to secure of the National the Acad- services of eminent emy of Sciences, members as a of appropriate parallel organization of professions outstanding in the examination engineers. of policy It is autonomous inmatters pertaining its administration to andthe in health of the public. the selection The Institute of its members, acts sharing under with thethe responsibility National Academy given to the National of Sciences Academyfor the responsibility of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programsown initiative, to identify aimed issues national at meeting of medical care, needs, research, education encourages and education. Dr. Harvey and research, V. Fineberg and recognizes issuperior the president of the achieve- Institute ments of of Medicine. engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The National The Institute Research of Medicine Council was organized was established by the in 1970 byNational Academy the National of Sciences Academy in 1916 of Sciences toto associate secure the the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining knowledge and advising to the federal the health of the government. Functioning public. The Institute acts in accordance under with general the responsibility policies given determined to the National by the Acad- Academy of emy, the by Sciences Council has becomecharter its congressional the principal to be an operating adviser to agency of both the federal the National government and,Academy on its own ofinitiative, Sciences and the National to identify issues Academy of medical of care, Engineering research, inand providing education. services to the government, Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg the public, and is president the of the scientific and engineering Institute of Medicine. communities. The Council is administered jointly by both the Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. William A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, The National respectively, Research of Council the National was organized Research Council. by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and The Transportation advising Research Board the federal government. is a division Functioning of the National in accordance Research with general policiesCouncil, determinedwhich by serves the the Acad- National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering. The Board's emy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences mission is to promote innovation and progress and the National Academy in transportation of Engineering through research. in providing In an to services objective and interdisciplinary the government, the public, and setting, the the Boardand scientific facilitates the sharing engineering of information communities. on transportation The Council is administeredpractice and jointly by policy by researchers both the Academies and and practitioners; the Institute of stimulates Medicine. research Dr. RalphandJ.offers Ciceroneresearch and Dr. management William A.services Wulf are that promote chair and vice technical chair, excellence; provides expert advice on respectively, of the National Research Council. transportation policy and programs; and disseminates research results broadly and encourages their implementation. The Board's varied activities annually engage more The Transportation than 5,000 engineers, Research scientists, Board is a and other division of the transportation National and researchers Research Council, practitioners fromwhich serves and the public the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering. The Board's mission private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is is to promote innovation supported by and progress state in transportation transportation through departments, research. federal agencies Inincluding an objective and interdisciplinary the component administrationssetting, of the the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in and Board facilitates the sharing of information on transportation practice and policy by researchers the practitioners; development of stimulates research transportation. and offers research management services that promote technical www.TRB.org excellence; provides expert advice on transportation policy and programs; and disseminates research results broadly and encourages their implementation. The Board's varied activities annually engage more www.national-academies.org than 5,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

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TCRP COMMITTEE FOR PROJECT J-7 COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM STAFF ROBERT J. REILLY, Director, Cooperative Research Programs CHAIR CHRISTOPHER W. JENKS, Manager, TCRP FRANK T. MARTIN EILEEN P. DELANEY, Director of Publications PBS&J, Tallahassee, FL TCRP SYNTHESIS STAFF MEMBERS STEPHEN R. GODWIN, Director for Studies DEBRA W. ALEXANDER and Information Services Capital Area Transportation Authority, Lansing, MI JON WILLIAMS, Manager, Synthesis Studies DWIGHT FERRELL DONNA L. VLASAK, Senior Program Officer The Ferrell Group, Richardson, TX DON TIPPMAN, Editor MARK W. FURHMANN CHERYL KEITH, Senior Secretary Metro Transit, Minneapolis, MN ROBERT H. IRWIN British Columbia Transit, Victoria, BC, Canada PAUL J. LARROUSSE National Transit Institute, New Brunswick, NJ WADE LAWSON South Jersey Transportation Authority, Atlantic City, NJ DAVID A. LEE Connecticut Transit, Hartford, CT DAVID PHELPS Consultant, Moneta, VA HAYWARD M. SEYMORE, III Laidlaw Transit services, Inc., University Place, WA PAM WARD Ottumwa Transit Authority, Ottumwa, IA JOEL R. WASHINGTON Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority, Washington, DC FTA LIAISON KAREN FACEN Federal Highway Administration TRB LIAISON PETER SHAW Transportation Research Board

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FOREWORD Transit administrators, engineers, and researchers often face problems for which in- By Staff formation already exists, either in documented form or as undocumented experience and Transportation practice. This information may be fragmented, scattered, and unevaluated. As a conse- Research Board quence, full knowledge of what has been learned about a problem may not be brought to bear on its solution. Costly research findings may go unused, valuable experience may be overlooked, and due consideration may not be given to recommended practices for solv- ing or alleviating the problem. There is information on nearly every subject of concern to the transit industry. Much of it derives from research or from the work of practitioners faced with problems in their day-to-day work. To provide a systematic means for assembling and evaluating such use- ful information and to make it available to the entire transit community, the Transit Co- operative Research Program Oversight and Project Selection (TOPS) Committee author- ized the Transportation Research Board to undertake a continuing study. This study, TCRP Project J-7, "Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems," searches out and synthesizes useful knowledge from all available sources and prepares concise, documented reports on specific topics. Reports from this endeavor constitute a TCRP re- port series, Synthesis of Transit Practice. This synthesis series reports on current knowledge and practice, in a compact format, without the detailed directions usually found in handbooks or design manuals. Each re- port in the series provides a compendium of the best knowledge available on those meas- ures found to be the most successful in resolving specific problems. PREFACE This synthesis documents current and innovative practices of U.S. transit agencies in the development and implementation of passenger no-show and late cancellation policies for paratransit programs operated under the regulatory requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA). It describes how some policies are administered, the com- munity response, and their effectiveness in small, medium, and large transit agencies sur- veyed. It examines policies both as a way to improve system productivity, efficiency, and capacity, and as a means to better serve riders with disabilities who may experience diffi- culties with the advance reservation aspect of most ADA complementary paratransit oper- ations. This topic is of interest to transit agencies that are responsible for providing ADA complementary paratransit that is efficient, cost-effective, and responsive to customer needs. It is also of interest to the disability community and other stakeholders who are con- cerned about having access to transportation services that are efficient, cost-effective, and appropriate for customer needs. A detailed on-line survey was conducted to gather information from U.S. transit agen- cies that are responsible for providing ADA paratransit services. Based on survey results, topical case studies were developed to highlight specific policies and practices. These were combined with a comprehensive overview of ADA regulatory requirements, supplemented by a review of published FTA findings in some recent compliance reviews, to offer useful information. A panel of experts in the subject area guided the work of organizing and evaluating the collected data and reviewed the final synthesis report. A consultant was engaged to collect and synthesize the information and to write the report. Both the consultant and members of the oversight panel are acknowledged on the title page. This synthesis is an immediately useful document that records the practices that were acceptable within the limitations of the knowledge available at the time of its preparation. As progress in re- search and practice continues, new knowledge will be added to that now at hand.

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CONTENTS 1 SUMMARY 3 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Background and Objectives, 3 Scope and Methods, 3 Report Organization, 3 4 CHAPTER TWO CURRENT STATUS OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS Federal Regulations, 4 Recent Federal Transit Administration Guidance and Interpretations, 5 Other Resources, 8 Summary, 9 10 CHAPTER THREE SURVEY OF TRANSIT AGENCIES Characteristics of Survey Respondents, 10 Overview of Survey Results, 10 Summary, 23 24 CHAPTER FOUR REVIEW OF NO-SHOW AND LATE CANCELLATION POLICIES No-Show and Late Cancellation Policy Overview, 24 Highlight 1: Passenger Incentives, 24 Highlight 2: Alternative Approaches, 25 Highlight 3: Technology as a Tool, 26 Highlight 4: Documentation and Record Keeping, 28 Highlight 5: Beyond the Rider's Control, 28 Highlight 6: Passenger Information, 30 Summary, 31 32 CHAPTER FIVE FEATURES TO CONSIDER WHEN DEVELOPING NO-SHOW AND LATE CANCELLATION POLICIES Policy Development, 32 Policy Content, 33 Policy Implementation, 33 Summary, 34 35 CHAPTER SIX CONCLUSIONS 39 REFERENCES 40 GLOSSARY 42 APPENDIX A SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE 48 APPENDIX B TRANSIT AGENCIES RESPONDING TO SURVEY