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3 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES FTA staff to clarify issues related to FTA findings and inter- pretations. This synthesis also includes a review of relevant The purpose of this synthesis report is to document current and literature and resources. innovative practices of U.S. transit agencies in the develop- ment and implementation of passenger no-show and late A detailed on-line survey was conducted to gather feed- cancellation policies for paratransit programs operated under back from U.S. transit agencies that are responsible for pro- the regulatory requirements of the Americans with Disabilities viding ADA paratransit services. A total of 134 surveys were Act of 1990 (ADA). This topic is of interest to transit agen- completed of the 283 distributed, for a return rate of 47%. The cies that are responsible for providing ADA complementary survey included questions covering organizational structure; paratransit that is efficient, cost-effective, and responsive to reservations, scheduling, and dispatching practices; no-show customer needs. This topic also is of interest to the disability and late cancellation policies; public involvement and out- community and other stakeholders who are concerned about reach efforts; technologies used to manage the service; and having access to transportation services that are efficient, cost- operating statistics. Based on the survey results, topical case effective, and appropriate for customer needs. studies were developed to highlight specific policies and practices. U.S.DOT regulations implementing ADA address the issue of no-show policies in ADA complementary paratransit service programs, specifically, 49 CFR 37.125(h), which states that REPORT ORGANIZATION The synthesis report is composed of six chapters, including The entity may establish an administrative process to suspend, for a reasonable period of time, the provision of complementary para- the introduction provided in this chapter. transit service to ADA paratransit eligible individuals who estab- lish a pattern or practice of missing scheduled trips. Chapter two presents an overview of current federal regu- lations, along with a summary of recent guidance and inter- In addition to documenting regulatory requirements, this pretations relevant to the discussion of ADA complementary synthesis includes a summary of recent regulatory guidance paratransit no-show/late cancellation policies and practices. and interpretations provided by FTA. This report also describes First, relevant sections of the regulations are presented. Next, how existing no-show/late cancellation policies are adminis- federal guidance and interpretations drawn from recent ADA tered, the community response, and the effectiveness of these complementary paratransit compliance reviews are described. policies in selected small, medium, and large transit agencies The chapter concludes with a brief description of other surveyed throughout the United States. resources that were identified during the literature review. The synthesis examines no-show and late-cancellation poli- Chapter three includes the results of an on-line survey of cies both as a way to improve system productivity, efficiency, 134 U.S. transit agency ADA coordinators and managers. The and capacity, and as a way to better serve riders with disabili- survey was intended to identify current no-show and late can- ties who may experience difficulties with the advance reser- cellation policies and practices employed by ADA paratransit vation nature of most ADA complementary paratransit opera- programs. The information gathered through the survey also tions. The report highlights no-show/late cancellation policies helped to identify innovative policies and practices for moni- that meet the intent of the ADA regulations and that have been toring and managing no-shows and late cancellations. developed with full and meaningful local public participation. Chapter four includes highlights of the no-show and late can- SCOPE AND METHODS cellation policies that were submitted by survey respondents. The synthesis report includes a comprehensive overview Chapter five includes a description of features that transit of the regulatory requirements of ADA. The regulatory agencies might want to consider when developing or review- overview is supplemented by a review of the findings pub- ing the no-show and late cancellation policies. lished by the FTA Office of Civil Rights in recent ADA com- pliance reviews and in response to formal complaints filed Chapter six includes a summary of findings and identifies with that office. Telephone interviews were conducted with outstanding issues and future research needs.