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40 GLOSSARY The following terms are commonly found when dealing with Curb-to-curb service--A common designation for para- ADA complementary paratransit services. The definitions transit services. The transit vehicle picks up and dis- are drawn from various sources including the Community charges passengers at the curb or driveway in front of the Transportation Association of America, FTA, TCRP, and customer's home or destination. National Transit Institute. Demand-response service--Where individual passengers ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act)--Passed by the can request transportation from a specific location to U.S. Congress in 1990, this act mandates equal opportu- another specific location at a certain time. Transit vehicles nities for persons with disabilities in the areas of employ- providing demand-response service do not follow a fixed ment, transportation, communications, and public route, but travel throughout the community transporting accommodations. Under this act, most transportation passengers according to their specific requests. May also providers are obliged to purchase lift-equipped vehicles be called dial-a-ride. These services usually, but not for their fixed-route services and must ensure system- always, require advance reservations. wide accessibility of their demand-responsive services to persons with disabilities. Public transit providers also Denial--A trip that cannot be accommodated because of must supplement their fixed-route services with para- inadequate system capacity. (A denial does not include transit services for those persons unable to use fixed- ineligible trip requests.) For ADA paratransit, a "capacity route service because of their disability. denial" is specifically defined as occurring if a trip cannot be accommodated within the negotiated pick-up window. ADA complementary paratransit or ADA paratransit-- Even if a trip is provided, if it is scheduled outside Paratransit service that is required as part of the Americans the 60/60-min window, it is considered a denial. If with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA), which complements, the passenger refuses to accept a trip offered within the or is in addition to, already available fixed-route transit 60/60-min pick-up window, it is considered a refusal service. ADA complementary paratransit services must not a capacity denial. meet a series of criteria outlined in the U.S.DOT imple- menting regulations. Door-through-door service--A higher level of service than door-to-door in which the driver actually provides assis- Advance reservation--A service request for a single trip to tance from inside the origin to inside the destination. occur at a specified later time; same as a random request or demand request. For ADA complementary paratransit Door-to-door service--A form of paratransit service that service, advance reservations must be accepted at least includes passenger assistance between the vehicle and the 1 day in advance of the trip. door of his or her home or other destination. Automatic vehicle location (AVL)--An electronic com- Dynamic dispatch--The practice of transferring trips munications system for tracking and reporting the location from one vehicle to another or inserting trips in vehicle of vehicles to a central dispatching center. manifests based on real-time information during the service day. Batch scheduling--The practice of scheduling trips after some or all of the reservations have been received. Interactive Voice Response (IVR)--This is a telephone- based technology in which someone uses a touch tone tele- Cancellation--An event where the customer who has previ- phone to interact with a database to acquire or enter data ously requested service contacts the transit agency to cancel into the database. IVR typically uses the keypad and the request before vehicle arrival. Some systems also define menu-driven responses. and count late cancellations, defined in various ways. Missed trip--Occurs when a carrier fails to pick up a pas- Capacity constraints--Defined by the U.S.DOT regula- senger. A missed trip also may be declared when a vehicle tions implementing the ADA as being policies or practices arrives so late that the passenger will not arrive at his or that significantly limit or constrain the availability of ADA her destination at a reasonable time (e.g., causing a paratransit service. Examples include trip priorities, wait- passenger to miss a doctor's appointment). ing lists, or an operational pattern or practice resulting in a substantial number of untimely pick-ups, excessively Mobile data terminal (MDT)--An in-vehicle piece of long trips, trip denials, or carrier missed trips. equipment that receives and sends digital messages and
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41 displays messages on a screen. Sometimes called a mobile (for ADA paratransit service, this would be within the data computer or MDC. allowed negotiated pick-up window). Negotiated pick-up time--The agreed on or negotiated Scheduled pick-up time--The pick-up time indicated by pick-up time that is offered by the call taker and agreed to the scheduler; if scheduling changes are made after the by the customer after a request has been placed and avail- customer has placed a request, the actual scheduled pick- ability checked. In ADA paratransit service, the regula- up time may vary slightly from the negotiated on pick-up tions allow a 60-min negotiated pick-up time before and time as long as it does not violate the on-time pick-up after the requested pick-up time, with consideration given window. for the applicant's appointment or schedule. Shared ride--Multiloading individual passengers on the No-show--A passenger scheduled for a demand-response same vehicle. trip does not appear at the designated pick-up point and time and does not cancel the trip in advance. Slack time--The available time in a vehicle schedule between a passenger drop-off and pick-up. Sometimes On-time pick-up window--The period (typically defined slack time is built into a schedule to accommodate antici- around the agreed on pick-up time) when customers are to pated additions or changes. be ready for pick-up and the period within which drivers can arrive and be considered on time. This window also will define the maximum change in time between the Subscription service--Repetitive service provided by agreed on and scheduled pick-up times that can be made advance reservations for the same trip, at the same time and without notifying the customer. day of travel over an extended period (often weeks or months). Sometimes referred to as "standing order service." Paratransit--Types of passenger transportation that are more flexible than conventional fixed-route transit, but Trip--A one-way movement of a person or vehicle between more structured than the use of private automobiles. two points. Paratransit includes demand-response transportation services, subscription bus services, shared-ride taxis, car Vehicle wait time--The maximum time that drivers are pooling and vanpooling, jitney services, and so on. required to wait for customers after they have arrived. Typically, the wait time does not start until the beginning Real-time scheduling--The practice of scheduling a trip at of the on-time performance window. the time the trip request/reservation is received. Will call--A will call or call when ready are terms for return Refusal--This occurs when a passenger refuses a trip that is trip requests that are not scheduled at the same time as the offered and is considered responsive to the original request going trip.