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GUIDE FOR EMERGENCY TRANSPORTATION OPERATIONS Strategy--Measure The International City/County Managers Associa- Performance in the tion Center for Performance Measurement collects Field to Provide the and analyzes the performance of a range of public Basis for Continuous safety services performance data (typically police, Improvement fire, and rescue response times and other service Improvement in perfor- characteristics) for more than 133 participating mance requires the estab- jurisdictions. This standardized database permits lishment of clear objectives participants to benchmark their jurisdiction and related benchmarks against comparables. The Journal of Emergency together with the measure- Management also conducts surveys and publishes ment of task time and average and best practices. See http://icma.org/ resource use for the vari- documents/PerfMeas_small.pdf. ous phases of ETO. Agree- ment on what is to be mea- sured across the traffic incident and emergency management community is essential. This can be considered with a formal process for review and identifi- cation and support for needed improvements. Reality 5. Informal, Fragmented Activities Within state DOTs, there is limited institutional commitment to ETO on average, as evi- denced in policy, program, budget, or professional training. ETO remains a part-time or subsidiary responsibility without the sustainable resources, staffing, or accountability of a formal program. While few state DOTs are yet concerned with maintaining real-time system performance as a priority, several are taking important steps in organization and accountability. Strategy--Formalize ETO as a Program with Appropriate Policies, Authorization, Organization, Structure, and Resources An effective approach will require "mainstreaming" ETO as a formal program in DOTs and public safety agencies--in recognition of the special requirements of improved performance. An appropriate policy and program framework must be developed with organizational accountability and resources as the basis for continuous improvement. The impact of the security and safety thrust of the NIMS institutionalization will provide further impetus. In addition, a greater degree of formality is essential in the relationship between state DOTs and the public safety agencies to provide the basis for refining more effective roles and relationships toward interagency cooperation. The combination of these changes means transforming a set of ad hoc activities into a formal program and establishing binding interagency relationships, priorities, and pro- cedures. Bringing together TIM, disaster and ETO, and other special emergency trans- portation preparations into a single management framework is the essence of ETO. THE BOTTOM LINE: DEGREE AND TYPE OF CHANGE NEEDED The logic of the guides is based on a belief that progress is possible and that the objec- tives of the various agencies can all be simultaneously met at a higher level of effec- tiveness. However, for state DOTs and public safety agencies, the focus on change in their respective approaches is quite different, related to their roles and objectives. Public safety agencies have principal authority and long-standing conventions for generic incident response and emergency operations procedures. For public safety agencies, 20
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GUIDE FOR EMERGENCY TRANSPORTATION OPERATIONS introducing a focus on hazards, preparing tailored approaches, and requiring an effi- ciency emphasis will all require a modest change to current approaches without com- promising their public safety orientation. Working with public safety agencies to accommodate a new emphasis on responsive- ness and performance, state DOTs must not only make procedural modifications in field practice, but also must adjust agency-level program activities. This should include chang- ing priorities, establishing program structure, reorganizing lines of reporting, mobilizing resources on a sustainable basis, setting performance objectives, and negotiating inter- agency consensus. The changes are likely to involve both district (regional) and head- quarters (division) level priority and resource reallocation. 21