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GUIDE FOR EMERGENCY TRANSPORTATION OPERATIONS Figure 7. Process for Navigating the Operations and Technology Self- Assessment and Guidance STRATEGY 1: MAKE HAZARD-SPECIFIC/PROACTIVE PREPARATIONS Proactive anticipation of common and unique hazards and development of hazard- specific protocols and technology are key to improving the safety of those involved in incidents, as well as responders. Therefore, key useful features are incorporated from preparation and response requirements to the complete range of special events and emer- gencies (including major incidents, HAZMAT, criminal, severe weather, natural disas- ters, and terrorism) (see Table 9). Table 9. Operations and Technology Self-Assessment for Strategy 1 Understood Start-Up In-Place ETO program addresses all types of roadway-related emergencies and hazards. Special response units (equipment, trained personnel) are available to address all hazard situations. Advanced detection and prediction technologies are available to assist with decision-making for an all emergency and all hazards situation. Contractual procedures are available to engage specialty towing and recovery services or special clearance equipment, e.g., for HAZMAT, WMD (not available through conventional agency resources) in a timely and efficient manner. Interoperable and secure communication systems exist among responders (public and private sector). Mutual aid agreements among jurisdictions and responders executed. SUMMARY SCORE (Tally number of checks in each column) Based on your self-assessment score, please select either the base-level or advanced- level tactics that are presented in Tables 10 and 11. 34

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GUIDE FOR EMERGENCY TRANSPORTATION OPERATIONS Table 10. Strategy 1 Base-Level Tactics Base-Level Tactics Key Objectives Addressed Improve Emergency Prediction Capability Maintain capacity Enhance the ability to predict emergencies (type, location, and timing) to minimize or Control traffic reduce emergency response times and to prepare specific traffic and other emergency Inform motorist responses for pre-planned special events (celebrations, concerts, athletic); major weather events (hurricanes, floods, snow); and established patterns and locations of non-recurrent congestion ("hot spots"). Improve Asset Threat Detection and Hardening Maintain capacity Deploy appropriate critical asset countermeasures to ensure appropriate threat detection, Control traffic deterrence, and hardening consistent with threat types and warning levels. Critical assets must be identified, their vulnerability assessed, and appropriate countermeasures deployed. These may include surveillance and detection technologies, lighting, barriers, key element lockouts, increased patrolling, and reduced access during periods of heightened threats. Allocate Personal Protective Equipment Ensure responder safety Allocate as appropriate personal protective equipment (detection, monitors, suits, masks, Reduce victim fatality decontamination equipment) to protect first responders, including key public safety and certain DOT personnel, who may face road-related chemical, biological, or radiological threats from WMD. Develop Advanced Traffic Incident and Emergency Management Plans for Ensure responder safety Predictable Emergencies/Incidents Control traffic Develop advanced Traffic Incident and Emergency Management Plans for predictable Maintain capacity disruption and high probability events (weather, construction, and special events) Inform motorist including pre-determined protocols (evacuation, diversion) and pre-positioned Clear roadway equipment. Arrange for Towing and Recovery and Special HAZMAT Removal Capabilities Reduce victim fatality Arrange for special clearance and control equipment and services for handling, removal, Investigate crime and liability and treatment of heavy vehicles, debris, and HAZMAT to minimize responder risk and Control traffic traffic disruption. The variety of on-road emergencies stemming from traffic, natural, Enforce law and terrorism causes can introduce a range of on-site removal and treatment challenges Maintain capacity including large vehicles and debris, hazardous materials, and WMD-associated hazards. Minimize backup and secondary Handling of removal and treatment problems introduced the need for specialized crashes equipment for towing cargo and HAZMAT handling and disposal. Arrangements must Clear roadway be made for the availability of such equipment on a routine or exception basis in a timely fashion to reduce the safety and delay impacts especially associated with major incidents. Develop Functional Flexibility into TMC Equipment and Operations Reduce victim fatality During incidents, the functions at the TMC are aligned to the scale and scope of the Investigate crime and liability incident. These changes may include 24x7 operational requirements; access to special Control traffic agency information systems (purchasing, design, personnel, etc.); or equipment Enforce law inventories and locations. This requires forethought in the design and operation of the Maintain capacity TMC that, depending on the event, may require the TMC to evolve into an auxiliary Minimize backup and secondary Emergency Operations Center, closely networked with other emergency responding crashes agencies and centers. Clear roadway Readiness to Advance Independent, joint agency review and self-assessment of the degree of achievement of these tactics in support of the overall strategy. Review of dispatcher logs and post-incident reports to assess incident management capacity and performance. Existence and concurrence across agencies on the operational plans for pre-planned events and activities. Accuracy and usefulness of prediction models. 35

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GUIDE FOR EMERGENCY TRANSPORTATION OPERATIONS Table 11. Strategy 1 Advanced-Level Tactics Advanced-Level Tactics Key Objectives Addressed Develop Interoperable Interagency Communications Reduce victim fatality Ensure responder safety Develop and deploy interoperable interagency communications for both voice and data to better coordinate emergency detection and response among emergency responders Inform motorist who are typically hampered by communications difficulties on a field-to-field, field-to- Provide motorist assistance center, and center-to-center basis. Deploy Specialized Advanced Medical Communications Reduce victim fatality Equip emergency medical services (EMS) vehicles with appropriate communication to Ensure responder safety support improved patient care at scene and better prepare hospital pre-arrival protocols. Inform motorist Deploy real-time video voice and data communications so that emergency physicians Provide motorist assistance (telemedicine) can target patient care on scene and en route. DOTs can support these efforts through shared use of ITS assets. Improve Contacts/Communications with Security Entities Ensure responder safety Develop formal interagency relationships and communications networks and protocols Investigate crime and liability between state DOTS and the non-transportation public safety, emergency, and security Maintain capacity communities including secure routings for classified information. Improved ties, both formal and informal, are essential to facilitate appropriate and timely communication of relevant strategic and tactical information including early warnings of elevated security threats. In this context, dealing with necessary federal and state security clearances and secure information handling will be essential. Arrange for Special Clearance and Control Equipment Reduce victim fatality Arrange for special clearance and control equipment and services for handling, removal, Investigate crime and liability and treatment of heavy vehicles, debris, and HAZMAT to minimize responder risk and Control traffic traffic disruption. The variety of on-road emergencies stemming from traffic, natural, Enforce law and terrorism causes can introduce a range of on-site removal and treatment challenges, Maintain capacity including large vehicles and debris, hazardous materials and WMD-associated hazards. Minimize backup and secondary Handling of removal and treatment problems introduced the need for specialized crashes equipment for towing cargo and HAZMAT handling and disposal. Arrangements must Clear roadway be made for the availability of such equipment on a routine or exception basis in a timely Inform motorists fashion to reduce the safety and delay impacts especially associated with major incidents. 36