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GUIDE FOR EMERGENCY TRANSPORTATION OPERATIONS STRATEGY 3: DEPLOY ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY/EQUIPMENT The potential range of technology applications covers communications, personnel pro- tection, incident prediction processes, and warning/detection technology with the poten- tial for automated response protocols. Appropriate technology, equipment, and supplies should be deployed for their important role in reducing the impact of incidents by min- imizing the time and cost of each phase of emergency response and improving its effec- tiveness. The development of interoperable field-to-field and field-to-center communi- cations is a key step in improving ETO effectiveness. Other valuable technologies include those deployed to detect or mitigate incidents as well as analytical procedures to predict incident occurrence and potential impacts/outcomes. Sufficient pre-specification of poten- tial emergency events allows for mitigation by protection, deterrence, or predetermined management tactics. Training in the use of these tools, as well as the results obtained in other regions, is important to help instill interest in the programs. The activities of Strategy 3 include the development of concepts, methods, and systems to improve the timeliness and content of notification of incidents or emergency events to responders, TMC staff, and dispatchers. In some cases this would include pre-notification through prediction. They also include potential improvements in interoperable inter- agency communications to support DOT-public safety communications both at the TMC and field levels (that may be a by-product of improved law enforcement communica- tions) as well as special medical communication, investigatory, and HAZMAT technol- ogy. Most of the deployment and associated costs are with law enforcement or other spe- cial emergency management entities, but DOT management can play a key role (including potential cost-sharing) in the stimulation or cooperation of advancing such projects (see Table 15). Table 15. Operations and Technology Self-Assessment for Strategy 3 Understood Start-Up In-Place Use of state-of-the-practice incident/emergency detection and prediction technologies and systems. Availability and training in the use of advanced site investigation technologies. Use of advanced communication systems supporting interoperable voice, data, and video communications to aid in responder safety and victim care/treatment. Coordinated secured communication with other local, regional, state, and federal agencies to enable situation assessment, reporting, response, and recovery. Programs to assess and protect critical assets. SUMMARY SCORE (Tally number of checks in each column) Based on your self-assessment score, please select either the base-level or advanced- level tactics that are presented in Tables 16 and 17. 40

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GUIDE FOR EMERGENCY TRANSPORTATION OPERATIONS Table 16. Strategy 3 Base-Level Tactics Base-Level Tactics Key Objectives Addressed Ensure scene responder and Improve Incident/Emergency Detection public safety Upgrade incident and emergency detection technology and systems and coverage and Control traffic related interagency communication systems coordination to support improved Eliminate secondary accidents emergency response times and targeting. Incident detection approaches include a Provide motorist assistance complete range from wireless 911 calls, automated collision notification (ACN), and Divert traffic service patrols. Victim treatment and extraction Develop Interoperable Interagency Communications Ensure scene responder and Develop and deploy interoperable interagency communications for both voice and data public safety to better coordinate emergency detection and response among emergency responders Control traffic who are typically hampered by communications difficulties in the field-to-filed, field-to- Divert traffic center, and center-to-center basis. Interagency communications should also extend to Minimize delays towing and recovery service providers as well as individuals associated with victim Coordinate response extraction, if not already assigned to public safety agencies. Investigate crime and liability Acquire Advanced Site Investigation Equipment and Facilities Minimize delays Acquire and deploy the most up-to-date investigative technology such as geographic Ensure scene responder and information system (GIS) mapping and "photogrammetry" to improve scene safety and public safety minimize traffic disruption by reducing technician exposure and reducing overall traffic Coordinate response disruptions including secondary crash potential. Ensure scene responder and Improve Site Investigate Procedures public safety Improve site investigation procedures, including better utilization of accident data Minimize delays collection technology and team procedures, to minimize disruption to traffic and Maintain capacity responder exposure on the roadway. Control traffic Ensure scene responder and Arrange for Special Clearance and Control Equipment public safety Arrange for special clearance and control equipment and services for handling, removal, Victim treatment and extraction and treatment of heavy vehicles, debris, and HAZMAT to minimize responder risk and Coordinate response traffic disruption. The variety of on-road emergencies stemming from traffic, natural, and terrorism causes can introduce a range of on-site removal and treatment challenges including large vehicles and debris, hazardous materials, and WMD-associated hazards. Handling of removal and treatment problems introduced the need for specialized equipment for towing cargo and HAZMAT handling and disposal. Arrangements must be made for the availability of such equipment on a routine or exception basis in a timely fashion to reduce the safety and delay impacts especially associated with major incidents. Readiness to Advance Number of technology components or programmatic elements established after 1 year of top-level management commitment. Case study review of technology effectiveness. Joint training and certification in specialized technologies. 41

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GUIDE FOR EMERGENCY TRANSPORTATION OPERATIONS Table 17. Strategy 3 Advanced-Level Tactics Advanced-Level Tactics Key Objectives Addressed Victim treatment and extraction Deploy Specialized Advanced Medical Communications Ensure scene responder and Equip EMS vehicles with appropriate communication to support improved patient care at public safety the scene and better prepare hospital pre-arrival protocols. Supply real-time video voice Coordinate response and data communications to emergency physicians (telemedicine) so they can target patient care on scene and en route. DOTs can support these efforts through shared use of ITS assets. Ensure scene responder and Improve Critical Asset Threat Detection and Hardening public safety Critical assets must be identified, their vulnerability assessed, and appropriate Control traffic countermeasures deployed. These may include surveillance and detection technologies, Enforce law lighting, barriers and key element lockouts, and increased patrolling and reduced access Minimize delays during periods of heightened threats. Divert traffic Maintain capacity Coordinate response All agency objectives Improve Contacts/Communications with Security Entities Develop formal interagency relationships and communication networks and protocols between state DOTs and the non-transportation public safety agencies, emergency and security communities including secure routing for classified information. Improved ties both formal and informal are essential to facilitate appropriate and timely communication of relevant strategic and tactical information, including early warning of elevated security threats. In this context, dealing with necessary federal and state security clearances and secure information handling will be essential. Ensure scene responder and Allocate Personal Protective Equipment public safety Allocate as appropriate personal protective equipment (detection, monitors, suits, masks, decontamination equipment) to protect first responders including key public safety and certain DOT personnel who may face road-related chemical, biological, or radiological threats from WMD. These protective measures may need to extend to the towing and recovery specialists as well as other agencies or individuals assisting with an emergency. 42