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GUIDE FOR EMERGENCY TRANSPORTATION OPERATIONS APPENDIX: THE STATE OF THE PRACTICE OPERATIONS--STATE OF THE PRACTICE The actual field activities in response to incidents or other emergencies take place within traditional frameworks designed for generic incidents and emergencies. Emergency response, general incident management, and TIM all have their own conventions con- sisting of agency roles, accepted procedures, headquarters functions, and ad hoc reac- tions by field personnel. Emergency Management Conventions The conventions of the transportation aspects of emergency management grow out of the function of state and regional emergency management agencies (EMAs) pursuant to Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and DHS guidelines. Principal fea- tures include the following: Leadership by local and state EMAs. In major non-highway emergencies with highway implications (such as evacuation), the EMAs call on law enforcement, fire service, medical service, health/human services, and DOTs for specific emer- gency support functions (ESFs), sometimes using pre-developed response strate- gies. When the size of the emergency reaches a certain level, the Emergency Operations Center (EOC) for the area encompassing the emergency is activated. A state or federal EOC may also be activated for major emergencies or terrorist attacks. An organization of process around generic protocols for three defined phases: preparation, response, and recovery. Responsibilities and communications are pre-identified for each stage. The emphasis on phase depends on the type of emer- gency, usually characterized by scope, location, type of facility, and severity. An "all-hazards" approach assuming tactics that have been developed for gen- eral emergencies are used as the basis for each presumed unique event. Recovery speed as a secondary focus with emphasis placed on thorough inves- tigation and documentation. Terrorism Annexes Since September 11, 2001, many states have updated their state and regional emergency management plans to add a terrorism annex specifying explicit authorities, responsibil- ities, contacts, and protocols in the event of elevated threat warnings or response to a ter- rorism event. These annexes follow general emergency management protocols. The DHS HSAS for terrorist threat levels and the NIMS for command and control provide addi- tional structures to be built into all-hazard ETO. General Incident Management Conventions and the National Incident Management System Generic incident management has been the standard process employed by the authorized agency that has incident command (fire service and/or law enforcement). Supporting roles were previously established by convention for other services such as emergency 47

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GUIDE FOR EMERGENCY TRANSPORTATION OPERATIONS medical services and transportation. Manuals and procedures of national fire, police, insur- ance, and standards organizations delineate various aspects of a generic incident manage- ment process facilitated by formal Incident Command Systems (ICS) to ensure that key responsibilities are executed and understood. Under 2003 Homeland Security Presidential Directive-5, DHS has developed the National Incident Management System. NIMS sets forth a series of principles that agencies must adopt in incident management with respect to emergency prevention, preparedness, response, recovery, and mitigation. Consistency with this system will be a condition for certain classes of federal aid to state and local governments. The principles of NIMS are designed to be standardized but flexible and include The use of incident or unified command; Joint preparedness activities including planning, training, and personnel qualification; Mechanisms for resource management; Standard procedures and channels for communication and information sharing; Standard, compatible, and interoperable technology; and Continuous, performance-based improvement. TIM Activities occurring in the field in response to traffic incidents or other emergencies on the highway take place within conventions that have evolved from general incident man- agement. By law, policy, or tradition, incident command has rested with law enforce- ment or fire service entities, with DOTs in a support role. Over the last few years, changes in the National Fire Protection Association Guidelines and the development of NIMS have called for better use of unified command procedures for multi-agency responses. Most state DOTs have a basic incident management response program for traffic con- trol and alternate routing, either for major incidents or upon request to support the pub- lic safety community. TIM procedures in the field are developed by each agency and are sometimes referenced in national publications developed by agencies or organizations such as FHWA, the USDOT, the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP), the U.S. Fire Administration (USFA), and the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). These conventions generally reflect Established roles and procedures for police, fire and rescue, emergency services, state DOTs, and towing and recovery organizations within an incident or unified command framework. Introduction of the concept of specific steps in the TIM process, including detect and verify, mobilize and respond, secure the scene, manage traffic, document, and restore and recover. 48