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87 · "The recommended improvements in SHP 2020 would Resident or neighborhood surveys for studies on reduce transportation costs for businesses in the state, neighborhood cohesion; making them more competitive with out-of-state busi- Risk models for analyzing the settlement of displaced nesses, as well as potentially attracting new business to populations; the state." Regression models, spatial interaction and entropy- maximizing models, Markov models, and simulation models for modeling pedestrian movement; Community and Neighborhood Impacts Photomontage techniques for visual impact assess- ment involving the superimposition of images of The approach to this impact category was similar to that transportation system changes onto an existing street used in the economic development impact category--general scene; statements were provided on the potential positive and neg- Noise prediction models such as STAMINA, the ative relationships between transportation investment and FHA's noise prediction software; and community/neighborhood integrity. In addition, this cate- Simulation models to estimate economic develop- gory introduced archaeological and historical site analysis as ment impacts of transportation investments. a community impact issue. This was measured by the num- · Neighborhood surveys are one of the most promising ber of such sites that would potentially be affected by each approaches for estimating the social effects of trans- alternative. For example, the recommended plan was deter- portation projects, allowing planners to deduce the mined to have a potential of affecting a total of 835 archaeo- attributes of neighborhoods that are valued by residents logical and 576 historical sites (compared to 430 and 372, in order to consider these attributes when formulating respectively, for the base case). transportation system changes and mitigating their neg- ative impacts. · Although many of the methods, tools, and techniques in SUMMARY OF LITERATURE use have been applied to study current circumstances, AND CASE STUDIES few have been applied to predict the effect of a planned change. Numerous books have been written on the different · Methods, tools, and techniques for estimating economic approaches that can be used for assessing the effect of effects are substantially more advanced than is gener- change on the natural and human environment. Two excel- ally true for techniques to measure social effects. lent sources, for example, are Dale and English (89) and · State DOTs, in general, are much more likely to con- Jensen and Bourgeron (90). However, only recently has duct social and economic impact analyses with their there been a concerted effort in the transportation field to own staff than are MPOs. MPOs are more likely to develop a comprehensive package of tools and methods for engage the services of consultants for this type of conducting environmental assessment. Individual tools have assessment. been developed for all of the impact categories of interest to transportation planners and engineers. However, there are The results of the literature review and case studies indi- very few publications that provide an overview of all the cate that GIS is becoming a standard tool for environmental possible tools and methods that might be appropriate for a assessment in transportation planning. This tool is particu- given situation. larly useful for spatial analysis of equity issues. For example, A resource guide on assessing the social and economic the Toledo Metropolitan Area Council of Governments impacts of transportation projects was recently completed as (TMACOG), Bay Area Metropolitan Transportation Com- a product of NCHRP Project 25-19. This guide, Evaluation of mission (MTC), Delaware Regional Valley Planning Coun- Methods, Tools, and Techniques to Assess the Social and Eco- cil, LA Southern Californian Association of Governments, nomic Effects of Transportation Projects, describes the analy- North Carolina DOT, Georgia DOT, and the U.S. Army all sis methods and tools that could be used to assess the social use GIS to incorporate equity issues into planning (see, for and economic effects of a transportation project. It also pre- example, 72, 91, 92, 93, and 94). sents the results of a survey of state DOTs and MPOs that In addition, several agencies are using GIS as a tool to cat- characterized the level of use of these methods, tools, and alogue environmental resources and evaluate the effect of var- techniques. Key findings of this study included the following: ious project, corridor, or plan alternatives on environmental resources. Agencies such as the Oregon DOT and Caltrans are · A wide range of methods and tools are available for developing GIS capabilities for "fatal flaw" and scenario assessing social and economic impacts. Examples analyses. Mn/DOT has initiated the development of a GIS to include track and analyze the effects of proposed alternatives on the GIS and spatial-statistical analysis for environmental state's archeological resources and, as described in the previ- justice analysis; ous section, FDOT has developed a GIS for environmental