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6 I N T E G R AT I N G S U S TA I N A B I L I T Y I N T O T H E T R A N S P O RTAT I O N P L A N N I N G P R O C E S S Education Recommendation: Educate New vehicle and fuel technologies such as small Stakeholders in Issues of Sustainability specialized vehicles, plug-in hybrid vehicles, electric guideways, and fuel cell vehicles; To build consensus and institutional capacity, education Alternative vehicle concepts such as car sharing in the dimensions of sustainability including sustainable and smart paratransit; transportation is needed. Educational methods such as New low-carbon fuels such as biofuels, electricity, professional development and training; public outreach; and hydrogen; institution building; information dissemination; and More energy-efficient combustion engine vehicles; adaptation of elementary, secondary, and tertiary cur- Sustainable means of freight movement; and ricula should be applied to appropriate stakeholder Pricing and full costing of fuel and roadways. groups. For example, planning professionals should receive uniform and legitimized training and education to augment planners' capabilities to include sustainabil- Case Studies and Pilot Projects ity issues. Planning professionals need to be provided with the information, resources, and skills that can Through pilot projects and case studies, research inno- enable them to deal with the complex interrelated issues vative processes, tools, and methods that demonstrate associated with sustainability. As another example, cur- the integration of sustainability concepts into trans- ricula on sustainability should be used in elementary, portation planning. Case examples and pilot projects secondary, and tertiary schools to instill the values of should be conducted with metropolitan planning organi- sustainability in younger generations. The general pub- zations and state agencies to demonstrate innovations lic should be educated in sustainability and the impor- such as visioning; longer planning horizons; backcasting; tance of individual decisions and behavior through ecological mitigation; land use and transportation inte- outreach and other forms of information dissemination. gration; introduction of new modes, vehicles, and fuels; and cross-modal planning. Air quality attainment methodology can be and, in a few instances, has been Recommended Areas for Further Research easily adapted to accommodate greenhouse gas esti- mates. U.S. Environmental Protection Agencyfunded Methods and Models for Longer Time Horizon efforts with state energy agencies have demonstrated the and Broader Reach Planning merits of pilot approaches. Metropolitan planning orga- nizations and state departments of transportation are Tools that enable the integration of sustainable trans- fully capable of undertaking meaningful efforts if federal portation practices into the planning process should be funding could provide the necessary resources. developed. Tools are particularly needed in the areas of sustainable urban development, finance, freight, green- house gas emissions, road ecology, and public decision CONCLUSION making. Research also is needed on the extent to which methodologies such as longer horizon planning, vision- Achieving a sustainable transportation system--one in ing, and backcasting will result in more sustainable which (a) current social and economic transportation transportation. needs are met in an environmentally conscious manner and (b) the ability of future generations to meet their own needs is not compromised--is not a simple task. Cer- Individual Transportation Behavior tainly, the path to such a transportation system will be difficult. Transportation system planners and providers Research current behavior patterns and the circumstances will need to work with and respond to market conditions, under which current behavior might change. Research demographic changes, and political challenges; it will not attitudes toward sustainability and environmental issues. be possible to envision achieving sustainability otherwise. These data will enable improved planning for the next Despite the enormity of the challenges, transportation generation of travelers, shippers, and carriers. planning can play a significant role in a mix of public and private actions toward the goal of sustainability. Annually, tens of billions of dollars are invested in trans- Alternative Energy Sources and Technological portation facilities and services by governmental units in Advancements the United States. These investments leverage a far greater level of private transportation investment to sus- Research innovative solutions to unsustainable effects of tain the economy. Transportation planning products transportation including, but not limited to, the following: generate, prioritize, guide, and authorize these strategic

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C O M M I T T E E F I N D I N G S A N D R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S 7 public investments. Thus, whether decisions made within tions. While some emerging practices embrace these the planning process reflect or ignore sustainability con- two adjustments, most current practices are still rooted cepts has a significant bearing on the likelihood of in more limited, traditional technical methods, evalua- achieving a sustainable system. tion schemes, and time horizons. A national consensus In brief, two achievable adjustments will greatly concerning sustainability, facilitated by dialogue and help integrate sustainability concepts into transporta- technical assistance supported by the U. S. Department tion planning practices: (a) taking a broader view with of Transportation, will be needed to ensure that the full concern for transportation's impacts on public entire transportation planning community makes the health, equity, and the environment; and (b) taking a necessary adjustments to integrate sustainability into longer-term view with full concern for future genera- planning practice.

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