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Presentations on Transportation Sustainability Indicators Mark DeLuchi, University of California (presented by David L. Greene, Oak Ridge National Laboratory) Mike MacCracken, Climate Institute Daniel Sperling, University of California, Davis David G. Burwell, Prague Institute for Global Urban Development Elizabeth Deakin, University of California, Berkeley Richard Forman, Harvard University HEALTH require new visions of integrated development of towns, transportation infrastructure, and transportation modes. Mark DeLuchi David Greene presented on behalf of Mark DeLuchi, CLIMATE CHANGE who was unable to attend the conference. The presenta- tion, External Costs of Motor Vehicle Use: Status and Mike MacCracken Trends, discussed transportation's external costs as well as its impacts on human health. The external costs Mike MacCracken began his presentation, Climate examined in the presentation included accidents, con- Change and Sustainable Transportation: The Need to gestion, oil use and energy security (military expendi- End Our Addiction to Fossil Fuels, by dividing the cli- tures, macroeconomic costs, pecuniary costs), air mate change issue into the following three questions: pollution (human health, visibility, crops, forests), and noise. The presentation provided estimates of these costs 1. How is the climate expected to change, and are we as well as trends in impacts and costs. already seeing the early signs of these changes? Since 1990, all of the external costs of transportation 2. What are the likely environmental and societal except those resulting from air pollution have increased impacts of changes in carbon dioxide concentration and substantially. The cost increases have occurred because the climate, and to what extent can adaptation ameliorate of a steady increase in vehicle miles traveled despite some the projected negative consequences? areas of improvement such as a reduced involvement of 3. What are the options for limiting the human- alcohol, increased use of seat belts, and improved vehicle caused factors inducing these changes, and how rapidly safety. The difficulty of reducing the growth of vehicle and economically can they be implemented? miles traveled suggests that health, safety, noise, conges- tion, and energy security costs of motor vehicle use may Answering these key questions is complicated by sev- have to be mitigated by reducing impacts per mile. Such eral unusual factors including long time horizons; the mitigation, however, faces many challenges, and it is not fact that all that can be expected given the complexity of likely that spotty management of per mile impacts will society and the environment is a projection of a range of result in a sustainable transportation system. possibilities; and the fact that the causes, impacts, and Transportation sustainability depends on the develop- control of the climate change issue are necessarily inter- ment of personal transportation choices that reduce the national. Dr. MacCracken then summarized fossil fuels' externalities of transportation without compromising benefits to society as well as the major effects they have any of the benefits of private motor vehicle use. This will on the environment. He demonstrated that the rise in 13