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14 I N T E G R AT I N G S U S TA I N A B I L I T Y I N T O T H E T R A N S P O RTAT I O N P L A N N I N G P R O C E S S carbon dioxide concentration is unusual and that aver- tric vehicles in the near term, and longer-term investments age temperatures are in fact higher because of human in advanced technologies should be encouraged. Research activity. Other climate measures are projected to change into and development of clean and renewable energy because of fossil fuel use: precipitation and the rate of sources should be expanded, as should experimentation evaporation will increase and sea level will rise. It is with new vehicles and services. important to be aware that changes in these measures may not be smooth; abrupt changes are possible. Adaptation will be essential regardless of choices EQUITY made concerning mitigation. Past emissions have already initiated climate change, and implementation of David G. Burwell mitigation will merely determine the rate of climate change. With regard to the impacts of climate change on David G. Burwell discussed the relationships between particular regions, only generalized projections are pos- equity, social stability, and sustainable transportation. sible. However, tools have been developed to indicate Traditionally, the equity and social issues of trans- levels of likelihood and confidence, and particular portation were thought to affect only the poor. More regions and sectors should use these tools to enhance recently, however, these issues have been recognized as long-term planning. affecting a much broader range of the demographic, The presentation concluded with the message that including low-income and minority groups, seniors and transportation is not only responsible for emissions of the elderly, children, and the physically disabled. The greenhouse gases but will also be affected by the chang- extent of the impact also is much broader and includes ing climate. To be sustainable, the transportation system access to transportation services, lifestyle (active versus must address adaptation as well as mitigation. sedentary as well as social isolation), and community cohesion. Community cohesion is required to be con- sidered in all transportation plans and is defined by the ENERGY extent of civic institutions, trust of political institu- tions, density of acquaintances, and degree of family Daniel Sperling and friendship networks. The equity and social impacts of transportation place Daniel Sperling's presentation on transportation energy challenges on transportation planning. The challenges sustainability began by outlining the upward trends in will require better planning management that accom- energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. Rapid modates notions of social equity across population increases in worldwide energy use are expected to con- groups with respect to access, quality of life, and com- tinue, and carbon dioxide emissions are increasing, with munity cohesion. Current transportation services, in an increasing proportion from transport. conjunction with present settlement patterns, generate Potential methods to reduce greenhouse gas emis- too many social burdens and insufficient social benefits sions and oil use were discussed. Suggestions included across interest groups. changes in behavior such as driving less and use of effi- People have been designed out of many urban areas, cient, low-carbon modes of transportation; changes in which contributes to increases in obesity, increases in transportation and land use formats such as new modes Type 2 diabetes in minority children, reductions in the (car sharing, smart paratransit, dynamic ridesharing), independent mobility of children (e.g., parents must specialized vehicles, and more efficient land use pat- drive children to school), and reductions in senior citi- terns; and changes in technology and fuels such as more zen travel. Transportation, if properly planned, could energy-efficient vehicles and use of low-carbon fuels. build social stability by renewing neighborhoods, nur- Large reductions in greenhouse gases are possible with turing a sense of community, improving safety and secu- electric drive and alternative fuels. Although previous rity, improving access, promoting public health, and alternative fuels, such as synfuels, methanol, ethanol, shaping growth to minimize sprawl. and compressed natural gas, failed because of cost and The following activities should be undertaken to lack of large societal benefits, more promising alterna- move toward including the impacts on equity and social tive fuels such as cellulosic ethanol, battery electric vehi- stability in transportation planning: cles, and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles have high efficiency and reliability and zero to near-zero emissions. Study community cohesion as a planning factor, as Dr. Sperling recommended that signals be sent to con- required by 23 U.S.C. 109(h)(2); sumers and industry to reduce energy consumption and Improve accountability of agencies and commu- greenhouse gases. More efficient use of transport, nity partners in addressing transportation, equity, and improvements in conventional vehicles and hybrid elec- social stability;