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Concurrent Sessions What Are the Challenges? William R. Black, Indiana University Joan Ogden, University of California, Davis Michael Wang, Argonne National Laboratory Kevin E. Heanue, Consultant Bob Johnston, University of California, Davis John P. Poorman, Capital District Transportation Committee, Albany Arthur (Chris) Nelson, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Steve Lockwood, PB Consult Tom Sanchez, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Christina Casgar, U.S. Department of Transportation Lee Schipper, World Resources Institute Martin Lee-Gosselin, University of Laval, Canada T his section provides a synthesis of the presenta- with some supply pathways, ability to be made from tions and discussions that occurred in the initial diverse sources (fossil, renewable, nuclear), wide use sessions of four concurrent sessions on the fol- today, the rapid progress in hydrogen and fuel cell tech- lowing topic areas: technology, tools and institutions, nologies, and potential to enable new products and ser- policy, and behavior. In each concurrent session, two vices that would transform the way energy is used and presentations were followed by a facilitated discussion. produced. In addition, hydrogen could reduce green- The purpose of the initial concurrent sessions was to house gas and air pollutant emissions and utilize discuss the challenges facing sustainable transportation diverse energy supplies. in each of the four topic areas. Barriers to a hydrogen economy include the need to develop emerging technologies while adapting current hydrogen technologies for a hydrogen energy economy CONCURRENT SESSION I-1: TECHNOLOGY (e.g., fuel cells, hydrogen storage for vehicles), the cur- rent high cost of hydrogen end use technologies, the cur- William R. Black, Facilitator rent lack of infrastructure to deliver hydrogen to Joan Ogden and Michael Wang, Presenters consumers, and the lack of consistent policies reflecting the external costs of energy. Hydrogen also presents technical challenges. For instance, current automotive Presentations fuel cells are many times more expensive than gasoline, the lifetime of fuel cells is currently too short, there are Joan Ogden discussed the potential role for hydrogen unresolved system issues with heat and water manage- in a sustainable transportation system. She outlined ment, hydrogen is bulkier and heavier than liquid fuels, several reasons why hydrogen should be considered as and no current hydrogen storage technology satisfies a transportation fuel, including its zero or near-zero automobile company requirements with regard to cost, emissions at point of use, low to zero well-to-wheels range, and refueling time. The technology to produce emissions of both air pollutants and greenhouse gases hydrogen at a large scale and low cost from fossil fuels 17