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18 I N T E G R AT I N G S U S TA I N A B I L I T Y I N T O T H E T R A N S P O RTAT I O N P L A N N I N G P R O C E S S is well established. Small-scale production of hydrogen CONCURRENT SESSION I-2: at refueling sites, however, is under development and is TOOLS AND INSTITUTIONS facing issues such as cost, efficiency, and system integra- tion. For hydrogen to be sustainable, pathways must be Kevin Heanue, Facilitator zero carbon and zero emissions. Bob Johnston and John Poorman, Presenters Even under optimistic scenarios, it will be several decades before hydrogen can affect emissions on a global scale. Dr. Ogden recommended the following Presentations actions to support hydrogen: research and development on hydrogen technologies, publicprivate partnerships Bob Johnston discussed the sustainable transportation to demonstrate hydrogen technologies, the institution of planning tools available to metropolitan planning organi- federal and state governments as early adopters of zations and state departments of transportation. Current hydrogen technologies, the establishment of codes and sustainable transportation planning is a medium-range standards for safe operation in energy applications, and process that ignores most impacts. A policy analysis analysis to better understand the societal costs of energy framework that requires long-range comprehensive plan- and the role of hydrogen in the future energy system. ning should be developed and implemented. Michael Wang discussed the life-cycle effects of Once such a policy framework is in place, existing vehicle and fuel technologies. The gap between U.S. oil tools and models can be used to facilitate the sustain- demand and domestic oil supply will continue to grow, able transportation process. Within agencies possessing new-vehicle fuel economy in the United States has not adequate resources, there is a technical capacity to improved measurably since 1985, and the United engage in land use and transportation modeling. Dr. States will continue to have the highest total green- Johnston provided an overview of models currently in house gas emissions. The reduction in criteria pollu- use throughout the United States and noted the cost- tant emissions has been a bright spot in the United effectiveness and appropriate scale of use of each model. States. John Poorman offered insight into the current state The life cycle of fuel can be defined as "well to wheels" of transportation planning's institutional framework or "well to pump + pump to wheels," and the entire life and culture. Missed opportunities in the sustainable cycle needs to be considered in energy and environmental transportation movement were discussed. The recent assessments. Oil use and greenhouse gases are major chal- transportation funding reauthorization debate was one lenges for a sustainable transportation system. However, such missed opportunity to promote sustainability in efficiency improvements, combined with fuel switches, transportation. could significantly reduce oil use and greenhouse gas emis- The current institutional structure for transportation sions of motor vehicles. As tailpipe emissions continue to planning is capable of supporting sustainable planning. decline, well-to-pump emissions of criteria pollutants However, the institutional culture of planning organiza- could become a significant share of total well-to-wheel tions inhibits advancement toward the integration of emissions, and this portion of the life cycle should not be sustainable concepts. Transportation planning is a slow ignored. Advanced vehicle and fuel systems need to be process that is constantly in transition. There is a lack of carefully examined to ensure achievement of intended institutional understanding about the future and a need energy and emission benefits. for metropolitan planning organizations and state departments of transportation to embrace uncertainty in the planning process. Discussion Metropolitan planning organizations and state departments of transportation must approach trans- After the two presentations, William Black facilitated a portation planning as a multipurpose process and not discussion. Topics included ways in which hydrogen limit their perspective to only one mode. Finally, long- might interact with other infrastructure and trends, the range transportation planning and community forma- need to design transportation infrastructure now for tion and land use planning require improved funding. future hydrogen compatibility, and the ability to apply transportation planning tools to the hydrogen economy. The need for technological change must be communi- Discussion cated effectively to the public. To motivate political action, a global understanding of the long-term problem Kevin Heanue facilitated this session's discussion. The and the need to make decisions now to affect results 50 discussion focused on the many challenges facing the years in the future is necessary. implementation of planning tools and models within the