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C O N C U R R E N T S E S S I O N S : W H AT A R E T H E C H A L L E N G E S ? 19 sustainable transportation movement. The discussion the efficiency of available capacity, significant improve- identified the following issues: ments in speedflow regimes, improvements in safety and security, reductions in modal distinctions, and possi- Lack of a sustainability requirement in the plan- bly the integration of operations into the planning ning process; process. Transportation providers are moving from pro- Cultural resistance to the sustainability movement; viding a network and developing projects to improving Lack of resources for the sustainability movement; mobility through system operations and management. Existence of political pressures; Tom Sanchez discussed the equity considerations and Lack of accountability within the transportation concerns of sustainable transportation. From a research planning process; perspective, it is important to identify the constraints Lack of performance measures; that prevent people from participating adequately in all Variation in forecasting methods--state, local, aspects of society, including education, employment, and federal; housing, and public services. There are several areas of Differences in metropolitan economics and gov- concern in transportation equity research: demographic erning; trends, personal transportation costs, indirect economic Overemphasis on model running and lack of and social effects, health effects, language barriers, citi- emphasis on data feeding; and zen participation, and employment and business oppor- Difficulties in modeling equity impacts. tunities within the transportation industry. CONCURRENT SESSION I-3: POLICY Discussion Arthur (Chris) Nelson, Facilitator After the two presentations, Arthur Nelson summarized Steve Lockwood and Tom Sanchez, Presenters the statistics of anticipated development over the next 30 years and the implications that this development may have for highways. Among the implications are Presentations increased vehicles, vehicle miles traveled, and lane miles. He posed the following policy questions: Steve Lockwood mentioned some of the challenges facing policy with regard to sustainability. They include posi- Where should this development be built? tional/political sustainability, institutional/financial sus- How should this development be configured? tainability, program sustainability via accountability (i.e., How should transportation systems be designed to systems development, output efficiency, and mobility and serve this future development? safety outcomes), and environmental sustainability (i.e., What policies and policy processes are needed to regulatory requirements and program externalities). To achieve this at the federal level? complicate matters further, sustainability goals encompass several overlapping policy arenas including technology, Among the policy challenges facing sustainable trans- demand management, and supply management. In addi- portation are the lack of broad consensus on national tion, issues of sustainability lie within the span of control targets for sustainability; the absence of nationally gal- of all levels of government--federal, state, regional, and vanizing goals for sustainability; and the lack of broad local. public understanding of the issues, challenges, choices, Mr. Lockwood discussed the role of system opera- and implications of choices with regard to sustainability. tions in a sustainable transportation system. He summa- rized the effect of system operations and management on roadway operating regimes for both recurring and non- CONCURRENT SESSION I-4: BEHAVIOR recurring causes of delay. In general, potential reductions in delay are minimal except for incident management of Christina Casgar, Facilitator breakdowns and crashes. In that case, a reduction of 20 Lee Schipper and Martin Lee-Gosselin, Presenters percent is possible. With regard to the impact of opera- tions on emissions, even the most cost-effective emission reduction strategies do little for mobility or congestion Presentations (except pricing). Trends in system operations were discussed, including Lee Schipper addressed the role that behavior plays in reductions in system expansion coupled with a focus on achieving sustainable transport. He focused on the role

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20 I N T E G R AT I N G S U S TA I N A B I L I T Y I N T O T H E T R A N S P O RTAT I O N P L A N N I N G P R O C E S S that the United States plays in shaping the worldwide arise from the fact that mode and route choices depend view of sustainable transport and the steps being taken on more than just a traveler's work commute. toward implementing sustainable transport in the Several short- and long-term actions being taken by United States. researchers to address the complexity of behavior were Unpredictable changes in behavior hamper the sus- identified. It is helpful to understand which decisions tainability process. Intervention could enable the sus- are important to whom (individuals, firms, public agen- tainable transportation movement at three levels of cies). There is a need to understand both conventional behavior: the macro level (politicians), the meso level data sources and how travelers interpret and use infor- (administrators and transport professionals), and the mation on travel options. micro level (individual travelers). Dr. Lee-Gosselin proposed that the transportation Key areas where further research is needed linking industry design behavior indicators and establish a bal- transportation and behavior were identified. There is a ance between persuasion, pricing, and regulation. Behav- need for a shift from typical destination studies to an ior change in favor of sustainable transportation will analysis of the transportation decision-making process. require feedback at the local, regional, and national levels. To achieve sustainable transport in the United States, Americans need to develop cultural recognition and cost internalization of the basic ingredients of sustainability. Discussion Martin Lee-Gosselin discussed the reasons behavior is seen as a problem in sustainable transportation plan- Christina Casgar facilitated the discussion during this ses- ning and policy. He also spoke to ways researchers are sion. The discussion focused on the limitations of human responding to the complexity of evolving transportation cognitive ability and how these limitations affect the plan- behavior. ning process. The inability of the individual to grasp the Dr. Lee-Gosselin first defined the externalities and idea of sustainability was attributed to the restriction of unanticipated consequences (good and bad) that result thought to short-term versus long-term thinking. The par- from the choices of travelers. He then described the six ticipants also made an attempt to determine the extent to inconveniences of behavior, including the difference which changes in behavior had to occur before changes in between preference and choice and the complexities that transportation could be achieved.