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Reports on the Concurrent Sessions What Are the Challenges? Genevieve Giuliano, University of Southern California Thomas M. Downs, Eno Transportation Foundation Anne Canby, Surface Transportation Policy Project Richard Gilbert, Centre for Sustainable Transportation C onference participants assembled in a general ses- tion to hydrogen also presents such obstacles as con- sion to discuss key points and areas of general sumer acceptance and development of compatible pro- agreement identified in the initial concurrent ses- duction, storage, and distribution systems. Whether to sions on the challenges facing sustainability in each of produce hydrogen from fossil fuels as an interim phase the four topic areas: technology, tools and institutions, to production via electricity is another question. policy, and behavior. A rapporteur provided an overview In addition to the development of future energy of each initial concurrent session. sources and the reduction of greenhouse gases, areas where technology could be successful in meeting sus- tainable transportation challenges include adaptation to CONCURRENT SESSION I-1: TECHNOLOGY climate change, improved safety, noise reduction through sound-absorbing pavements and quiet cars, Genevieve Giuliano, Rapporteur congestion relief through improved system manage- ment, and facilitation of mobility. The participants con- Participants primarily discussed the technology of cluded that technology research should be focused future energy sources with regard to production, distri- where solutions are the most promising with regard to bution, and storage. A 30- to 70-year time frame is their positive impact on sustainability. required for the implementation of new transportation technologies. To make informed policy decisions about future energy sources and their sustainability, a full CONCURRENT SESSION I-2: "well-to-wheel" evaluation is required. TOOLS AND INSTITUTIONS In the short term, future energy sources are likely to include hybrids, natural gas, ethanol, and unconven- Thomas M. Downs, Rapporteur tional oil. In the long term, hydrogen appears to be the most promising energy source, but other options such as Participants discussed numerous challenges to integrat- nuclear, electric, and sequestration also need to be con- ing concepts of sustainability into the tools and institu- sidered. Hydrogen has the most potential, on the basis tions of the planning process. To start, sustainability is of its diverse sources of production, near-zero emissions, not a requirement in the planning process, and political and rapid technological advances. The technological pressures and a lack of resources inhibit the movement challenges associated with hydrogen include its high toward sustainability. cost, limited fuel cell lifetime, heat and water manage- Additional challenges are a lack of accountability in ment, on-vehicle storage, production systems, and risk planning organizations; the absence of performance and uncertainty of some production sources. The transi- measures; the variety of forecasting methods across fed- 21