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22 I N T E G R AT I N G S U S TA I N A B I L I T Y I N T O T H E T R A N S P O RTAT I O N P L A N N I N G P R O C E S S eral, regional, state, and local levels; a culture of being CONCURRENT SESSION I-4: BEHAVIOR in the lead rather than a culture of collaboration; dif- ferences in metropolitan economics and governing; Richard Gilbert, Rapporteur overemphasis on model running and lack of emphasis on data feeding; absence of a 50-year planning require- Participants discussed approaches to behavior (i.e., ment; inability to assess equity or public involvement; what people do), whether they are travelers, shippers, lack of cross-disciplinary training; and the need to decision makers, or others. Two general approaches establish sustainability as an important issue at the were described. One is the Confucian approach, also national level. embraced by American behaviorists, which looks for the causes of behavior in the environment or context in which it occurs. The other is the Aristotelian approach, CONCURRENT SESSION I-3: POLICY which holds that behavior is the result of people's choices, the product of will or mind. Confucians would Anne Canby, Rapporteur change behavior, if they were so inclined, by changing its circumstances or consequences. Aristotelians seek to The participants in this session discussed how to set change behavior by persuasion, perhaps backed up by priorities, fund programs, and establish rules to changes in its context. The limited evidence concerning implement policy that furthers the goal of sustainable what it takes to change transport activity suggests that transportation. The lack of a uniform definition of Confucians may have better answers. Desirable out- sustainability combined with the complexity and comes are more likely to be achieved by judicious use uncertainty of the issues limits the ability to address of incentives and disincentives and by otherwise struc- these issues. The importance of credibility in engaging turing environments to favor what is required than by others and garnering broad support for the issues of convincing people that change is necessary. sustainability was also discussed. Surrogate issues can Five challenges were identified: be used to reach desired outcomes with regard to some aspects of sustainability such as climate change. 1. Giving appropriate feedback. Transport indicators The building of coalitions around these issues will are not good enough to support provision of effective develop support for sustainability that can be drawn consequences of good or bad transport activity. on when the time is right for policy development. It 2. Achieving effective balances of regulation, pricing, should be possible to build support for change in the and persuasion. Each has its role. following areas: 3. Recognizing that transport behavior is among the most complex things that people do. 1. Energy availability at a reasonable price, 4. Recognizing the importance of the meso level (i.e., 2. Safety, administrative and expert behavior) versus the macro 3. Health (asthma, obesity), level (politicians) and the micro level (travelers and ship- 4. Environment (ecosystems, biodiversity, air and pers). water pollution), and 5. Coping with longer time scales (i.e., beyond the 5. Equity. next fiscal year). The participants discussed congestion and mobility Participants identified 12 research areas related to in addition to the fives areas listed above but questioned behavior and sustainability: whether these issues fit within the framework of sus- tainability. 1. Determining the extent to which it is necessary to Flexibility in the transportation system and its institu- change hearts as well as heads; tions is important, since it is not known what will trigger 2. Empowering stakeholders; the need to address sustainability. Currently, the trans- 3. Establishing the importance of alternatives; portation system and its providers are not prepared to 4. Understanding individual transport behavior bet- address sustainability. Institutional and financial rigidities ter; prevent steps toward sustainability from being taken. The 5. Understanding freight trends and who is responsi- session participants discussed the need for better ways to ble for them; measure project and agency performance, fiscal flexibility 6. How to get at kids in school, from kindergarten to to enable addressing changing circumstances, and coali- Grade 12; tions to build the conditions to address solutions. 7. Operationalizing meso planning;

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R E P O RT S O N T H E C O N C U R R E N T S E S S I O N S : W H AT A R E T H E C H A L L E N G E S ? 23 8. Developing indicators of necessary versus discre- 11. Determining a "reasonable level of mobility"; tionary change; and 9. Making use of fairness in transport planning; 12. Integrating environmental management and 10. Making better use of natural experiments; transport management at regional levels.