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R E P O RT S O N C O N C U R R E N T R O U N D TA B L E D I S C U S S I O N S 27 The participants recommended that a best practices term decision making, were discussed. Several issues handbook be compiled and issued to transportation pro- deemed to be important to the sustainability movement fessionals. It also was suggested that a sustainability were thought to have been overlooked in the planning training program be established for transportation plan- process. Two examples of unaddressed issues are (a) con- ners. The participants expressed a need to establish sus- sideration of the time scale needed for longer-range plan- tainability at the national level. The group recommended ning and (b) insufficient provision of information to that sustainability issues be tackled via pilot projects and people affected by the planning process. Achieving bal- real-world experiments. The development of sustainabil- ance between regulation and pricing also was seen as crit- ity standards and a quantification of both the benefits ical to attaining sustainable transportation. Finally, the and the negative aspects of sustainability were encour- participants emphasized the importance of identifying the aged. The implementation of these practices would be appropriate level or group within the transportation plan- steps toward legitimizing the sustainability movement. ning process to lead the movement toward sustainability. Several educational and technical initiatives were identified as solutions to some of the challenges. Empha- CONCURRENT SESSION II-3: POLICY sis was placed on the use of training and education to change human behavior. Children and transportation Anne Canby, Rapporteur professionals were cited as target groups for educational initiatives. The possibilities for expanding the planning The participants discussed the changing housing market process to create a more inclusive atmosphere were also and how the current trends for urban higher-density living discussed. The planning process must engage hitherto will shape the future of transportation. They also noted unrepresented and underrepresented groups, including that federal, state, and regional levels of government all industry. Improved dialogue between government and must play significant roles in policy initiatives. industry must be encouraged. To address sustainability concerns, the participants In previous sessions, expansion of the transportation encouraged policy development in the following areas: planning process had been cited as critical to the successful integration of sustainability. It was agreed that expansion Broaden curricula to cover demands that will be could involve several components, including visioning. The placed on future planners and transportation profes- designation of funds for the visioning process at the metro- sionals, including the addition of human sciences to the politan and state levels is necessary for its implementation. engineering curriculum. Finally, it was recommended that transportation profes- Perform research into how mode choice, vehicle sionals include operations and capital investment issues in use, and energy consumption change with respect to the transportation planning process. density, location, and land use configuration given The group emphasized the need to build a conscious- changing demographic trends, residential preferences, ness of sustainability and discussed a strategy for achieving and officeretail dynamics. this goal. A hierarchy of implementation was formulated Facilitate market forces favoring transportation as a guide toward attaining sustainability. It was suggested sustainability. that modules of sustainable education be introduced at all Establish an interdepartmental working group on levels of education, beginning with elementary school. Par- sustainability (including the Department of Housing ticipants recommended that assessments of staffing and and Urban Development, the Department of Energy, the educational needs be conducted at the state and metropol- Environmental Protection Agency, the Department of itan levels. Implementation of a cost assessment strategy Treasury, and the Department of Health and Human aimed at fully costing sustainable and nonsustainable Services, among others). transport was also recommended. The level appropriate Create a national dialogue and build consensus on for intervention--that is, the group through which to push the need for sustainability. change--was determined to be the meso level: experts and Identify the barriers within institutions and poli- bureaucrats. The meso level could assist in making behav- cies to achievement of a sustainability program. ior changes in the macro level of politicians and at the micro level of individual travelers. The retraining of the meso group could help promote sustainable behavior CONCURRENT SESSION II-4: BEHAVIOR among the users and regulators of transportation. In summary, the breakout group identified 10 solu- Richard Gilbert, Rapporteur tion areas: The complexity and the limitations of human cognitive 1. Focus on educating children for sustainability, ability, which may underscore inability to engage in long- both as transport's "canaries" and as adults-to-be.

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28 I N T E G R AT I N G S U S TA I N A B I L I T Y I N T O T H E T R A N S P O RTAT I O N P L A N N I N G P R O C E S S 2. Focus on the training of engineers and other 7. Require transport planning processes to consider transport professionals in sustainability. full-cost pricing. 3. Have empty seats in the planning process (say, an 8. Provide federal resources for more, different, and older person, a Bangalore resident, and a fish). better staffing of metropolitan planning organizations. 4. Require a visioning element as part of the metro- 9. Involve industry in planning for transport sus- politan planning organization process; designate a set tainability (e.g., hold a conference for chief executive share of funds, say 7 percent. officers). 5. Prepare a casebook of good and bad practices, 10. Expand the metropolitan planning organization mainly for educational purposes. process to deal with operations issues as well as capital 6. Prepare a casebook of good and bad situations investment. (for example, which contexts sustain transit use and which do not).