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42 I N T E G R AT I N G S U S TA I N A B I L I T Y I N T O T H E T R A N S P O RTAT I O N P L A N N I N G P R O C E S S tion of local species or the loss of habitat. In other cases transit in the United States. The program put in place they involve expansion or contraction of species or the would have accomplished this, but soon transit systems introduction of new species that may be harmful to were proposed to alleviate congestion, solve air quality existing organisms in an area. The latter usually occurs problems, provide access for disadvantaged groups, and with plant introductions in urban and rural areas. serve areas outside the original urban area. So many Highways have become the major cause of death requirements were placed on urban transit that it could among numerous animal species, and there is little rea- hardly satisfy them, and many view those investments son to assume that this will end in the near future. While today as largely unsuccessful. These systems are still in such impacts are often local and not detrimental to an place, but I would not credit the goals and objectives of entire species, it is nevertheless desirable that we try to their creation for this. My concern is that we will try to prevent them. Some may argue that they cannot be pre- do so much with our transport system under the rubric vented effectively, but numerous local projects involving of sustainability that we will make the concept unwork- tunneling under highways to provide a safe route for able, to the detriment of current and future generations. animal movements would counter this argument. REFERENCES Equity Albion, R. G. 1965. Forests and Sea Power: The Timber Prob- What could be and is being done to foster an equitable lem of the Royal Navy, 16521862. Archon Books, transport system now and in the future is not as easy to Hamden, Conn. identify. It should be apparent that anything improving Bell, D., R. Delaney, and R. Lewis. 1997. A Proposal for Sus- the situation with regard to the aforementioned defini- tainable Transport: A National Framework. Transport tions will contribute to transgenerational equity. With Canada, Ottawa, Ontario. regard to the contemporary situation, it is not as clear Black, W. R. 1990. Global Warming: Impacts on the Trans- what can be done, although to accept the transgenera- portation Infrastructure. TR News, No. 150, tional equity argument one must assume that it applies Sept.Oct., pp. 28, 34. to the current scene as well. Black, W. R. 1996. Sustainable Transportation: A U.S. Per- Solutions to the various problems noted here would spective. Journal of Transport Geography, Vol. 4, No. probably move toward a more equitable system, but 3, pp. 151159. some might argue this point. Their argument would Black, W. R. 2002. Sustainable Transport and Potential probably go to the very nature of what is meant by an Mobility. European Journal of Transport and Infra- equitable transport system. structure Research, Vol. 2, Nos. 34, pp. 179196. Black, W. R. 2003. Transportation: A Geographical Analysis. Guilford Press, New York. FINAL CLARIFICATION AND COMMENT Centre for Sustainable Transportation. 1998. Definition and Vision of Sustainable Transportation. Toronto, Ontario, The careful reader will recognize that all of the pro- Canada. posed attributes of a sustainable transport system have Daly, H. E. 1992. Steady State Economics. Island Press, Wash- not been reviewed here. The primary reason is the host ington, D.C. of definitions offered. For example, the Mobility 2001 Deffeyes, K. S. 2001. Hubbert's Peak: The Impending World definition includes the ability to communicate, and Oil Shortage. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J. Transport Canada's 2003 definition includes the "high- Evans, L. 2003. Transportation Safety. In Handbook of est possible standards for security." Both may be desir- Transportation Science (R. W. Hall, ed.), Kluwer able, but they are not necessarily components of a Academic Publishers, Boston, Mass., pp. 67112. sustainable transport system. Feitelson, E. 2002. Introducing Environmental Equity If we want to strive for a sustainable transport sys- Concerns into the Discourse on Sustainable Transport. tem, we cannot weigh it down with every possible desir- In Social Change and Sustainable Transport (W. R. able attribute. This does not mean that these various Black and P. Nijkamp, eds.), Indiana University Press, other items cannot be pursued under the umbrella of Bloomington. sustainability, but let's not set the bar so high that in Forman, R. (ed.). 2003. Road Ecology: Science and Solutions. time participants simply throw up their arms and walk Island Press, Washington, D.C. away. I am reminded of President Kennedy's 1962 trans- Gordon, D. 1995. Sustainable Transportation: What Do We portation address to Congress, wherein he proposed a Mean and How Do We Get There? In Transportation program for urban mass transit to stave off what and Energy: Strategies for a Sustainable Transportation appeared to be the rapidly approaching end of urban System (D. Sperling and S. A. Shaheen, eds.), American

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S U S TA I N A B L E T R A N S P O RT: D E F I N I T I O N S A N D R E S P O N S E S 43 Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, Washington, Concerns into Transport Policies: Part I, Policy Context D.C. and Indicator Development, and Part II, Measured Greene, D. L., J. L. Hopson, and J. Li. 2003. Running Out of Indicators. Paris. Oil: Analyzing Global Oil Depletion and Transition Pearce, D., A. Markandya, and E. S. Barbier. 1989. Blueprint Through 2050. ORNL/TM-2003/259. Oak Ridge for a Green Economy. Earthscan, London. National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tenn., Oct. Pearce, D. W., and J. J. Warford. 1993. World Without End: Greene, D. L., and M. Wegener. 1997. Sustainable Transport. Economics, Environment, and Sustainable Develop- Journal of Transport Geography, Vol. 5, No. 3, pp. ment. International Bank for Reconstruction and Devel- 177190. opment, Washington, D.C. Heanue, K. 1997. Transportation S&T Strategy Partnership Ini- Schipper, L. 1996. Sustainable Transport: What It Is, Whether tiatives. Presented to the National Science and Technology It Is, Towards Sustainable Transportation. Presented at Council Transportation R&D Committee, Sept. 25. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Develop- Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 2001. Third ment Conference, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Assessment Report, Summary for Policymakers. Work- Transport Canada. 2003. Straight Ahead: A Vision for Trans- ing Group I, Feb. 19. portation in Canada. Ottawa, Ontario. Lay, M. G. 1992. Ways of the World: A History of the World's Transportation Research Board. 1997. Special Report 251: Roads and of the Vehicles That Used Them. Rutgers Toward a Sustainable Future: Addressing the Long- University Press, New Brunswick, N.J. Term Effects of Motor Vehicle Transportation on Cli- Litman, T. n.d. Sustainable Transportation Indicators. Victo- mate and Ecology. National Research Council, ria Transport Policy Institute, Victoria, British Colom- Washington, D.C. bia, Canada. Ubbels, B., M. Enoch, S. Potter, and P. Nijkamp. 2004. Unfare Litman, T. 1999. Evaluating Transportation Equity. Victoria Solutions: Local Earmarked Charges to Fund Public Transport Policy Institute, Victoria, British Colombia, Transport. Spon Press, London. Canada. www.vtpi.org. United Nations World Commission on Environment and Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Charles River Development. 1987. Our Common Future. Oxford Uni- Associates, Inc. 2001. Mobility 2001: World Mobility at versity Press, Oxford, United Kingdom. the End of the Twentieth Century and Its Sustainability. World Health Organization. 2001. A 5-Year WHO Strategy World Business Council for Sustainable Development. for Road Traffic Injury Prevention. WHO/NMH/VIP/ Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. 01.03. Department of Injuries and Violence Prevention, 1998. Indicators for the Integration of Environmental Geneva, Switzerland.