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What Are the Challenges to Creating Sustainable Transportation? How Can Transportation Systems Become More Sustainable? Martin Wachs, University of California at Berkeley S " ustainability" has become one of the watchwords access to health care, education, employment, and recre- governing policy deliberations and debates about ation, and improved access to a wider range of con- transportation. The intensity with which sustain- sumer goods has dramatically improved standards of able transportation will be debated is likely to increase living all over the globe. However, we are genuinely con- for decades to come. Like so many other words that cerned about sustainability because of the growing dis- have entered our vocabulary, such as "efficiency" and parities between those who have achieved these benefits "equity," the concept is powerful and evokes strong and those who have not yet but certainly hope to in the reactions even as it is difficult to define and measure. future. The differences are especially noticeable because William Black's paper has given us an intellectually rich they exist at the same time that many are becoming overview of the concept of sustainability and the chal- aware that the worldwide stock of energy resources pro- lenges that the concept poses, and other speakers have viding for mobility is being depleted at a rapid rate. We given us benchmarks that help us gauge the depth and wish to reduce reliance on those limited resources while breadth of the sustainability challenge. My goal is to expecting increased mobility for a large proportion of provide a bridge between the morning overview and the the world's population. At exactly the same time that breakout sessions that will follow this talk. More specif- concern is growing with respect to the distributional ically, I will assess how transportation planners, policy aspects of mobility and the long-term depletion of makers, and public officials can take actions that will energy resources, the atmospheric concentration of move us along a path toward sustainability. Because of greenhouse gases (GHGs) is growing ominously, and the complexity of transportation as a human activity scientific evidence has persuaded most of us that this is and as a physical network, we need to talk about actions causally related to global energy consumption. Also, the that can be taken in the public sector, by private compa- negative byproducts of mobility in the form of air and nies, and by individual citizens and households. Despite water pollution, contamination of land, and the accu- the importance of sustainability internationally, I will mulation solid wastes are causing many to worry that focus on sustainability in the United States to simplify the benefits of mobility may be less available to future the discussion and in recognition of our personal roles generations, while the costs of today's mobility may be and organizations. I will draw on some insights from escalating dramatically. experience overseas. To acknowledge these concerns in no way requires us On balance, the ability to travel and to ship goods at to belittle the significance of the benefits of transport low cost over long distances, as provided through a systems. The sustainability movement is a search for complex of transportation systems and networks, has balance, and the attainment of balance between mobil- enhanced humankind's economic, social, and personal ity and sustainability is an enormous challenge. While well-being. It has been a major factor in increasing some will emphasize one side of the scale more than the 44