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53 REFERENCES 1. AASHTO, AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. 1st 19. Vecchio, F. J., and Collins, M. P., "Predicting the Response of edition, Washington, DC (1994) 1091 pp. Including interim Reinforced Concrete Beams Subjected to Shear using the Mod- revisions for 1996 and 1997. ified Compression Field Theory." Journal of the American 2. Vecchio, F. J., and Collins, M. P., "The Modified Compression Concrete Institute, Vol. 85, No. 3 (1988) pp. 258268. Field Theory for Reinforced Concrete Elements Subjected to 20. Collins, M. P, and Mitchell, D., Adebar, P. E., and Vecchio, Shear." Journal of the American Concrete Institute, Vol. 83, F. J., "A General Shear Design Method." ACI Structural No. 2 (1986) pp. 219-231. Journal, Vol. 93, No. 1 (1996) pp. 3645. 3. ACI Committee 318, Building Code Requirements for Struc- 21. Collins, M. P, and Porasz, A., "Shear Design for High Strength tural Concrete (ACI 318-02) and Commentary (ACI 318 R-02). Concrete." 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54 35. Belarbi, A., and Hsu, T. T. C., "Constitutive Laws of Rein- 43. Angelakos, D., Bentz, E. C., and Collins, M. P., "The Effect of forced Concrete in Biaxial Tension-Compression." Research Concrete Strength and Minimum Stirrups on the Shear Strength Report UHCEE 91-2, University of Houston, TX (1991). of Large Members." ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 98, No. 3 36. Belarbi, A., and Hsu, T. T. C., "Constitutive Laws of Concrete (2001) pp. 290300. in Tension and Reinforcing Bars Stiffened by Concrete." ACI 44. Gupta, P. R., and Collins, M. P., "Evaluation of Shear Design Structural Journal, Vol. 91, No. 4 (1994) pp. 465474. Procedures for Reinforced Concrete Members under Axial 37. Belarbi, A., and Hsu, T. T. C., "Constitutive Laws of Soft- Compression." ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 98, No. 4 (2001) ened Concrete in Biaxial Tension-Compression." ACI Struc- pp. 537547. tural Journal, Vol. 92, No.5 (September-October 1995) 45. Bhide, S. B., and Collins, M. P., "Influence of Axial Tension pp.562573. on the Shear Capacity of Reinforced Concrete Members." ACI 38. Pang, X.-B. D., Hsu, T. T. C., "Fixed-Angle Softened-Truss Structural Journal, Vol. 86, No. 5 (1989) pp. 570581. Model for Reinforced Concrete." ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 46. Reineck, K. H., Kuchma, D. A., Kim, K. S., and Marx, S., 93, No. 2 (1996) pp. 197207. "Shear Database for Reinforced Concrete Members without 39. Vecchio, F. J., "Disturbed Stress Field Model for Reinforced Shear Reinforcement." ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 100, No. Concrete: Formulation." ASCE J. Struct. Engrg, Vol. 126, No. 2 (2003) pp. 110. 8 (2000) pp. 10701077. 47. ABAQUS, ABAQUS 6.3-1 Documentation. Hibbitt, Karlsson 40. Shioya, T., Iguro, M., Nojiri, Y., Akiyama, H., and Okada, T., & Sorensen, Inc. (2004). "Shear Strength of Large Reinforced Concrete Beams, Fracture 48. DIANA, DIANA User's Manual, 6.0 Ed. TNO Building and Mechanics: Application to Concrete." ACI SP-118, Detroit Construction Research, Delft, Netherlands (1996). (1989) 309 pp. 49. Vladimr C ervenka and Jan C ervenka, ATENA Program Doc- 41. Collins, M. P, and Kuchma, D. A., "How Safe Are Our Large, umentation. Cervenka Consulting (2002) 138 pp. Lightly Reinforced Concrete Beams, Slabs, and Footings?" 50. Bazant, Z. P., and Kazemi, M. T., "Size Effect on Diagonal ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 96, No. 4 (July-August 1999) Shear Failure of Beams without Stirrups." ACI Structural Jour- pp. 482490. nal, Vol. 88, No. 3 (1991) pp. 268276. 42. Moody, K. G., Viest, I. M., Elstner, R. C. and Hognestad, E., 51. Bentz, E. C., Vecchio, F. J., and Collins, M. P., "The Simpli- "Shear Strength of Reinforced Concrete Beams, Part-1--Tests fied MCFT for Calculating the Shear Strength of Reinforced of Simple Beams." Journal of the American Concrete Institute, Concrete Elements." submitted for publication in the ACI Vol. 51, No. 4 (December 1954) pp. 317333. Structural Journal (2005)