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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES its fines for work zone violations. (http://www.tmemag.com/tme/index.cfm/ powergrid/rfah=%7Ccfap=/CFID/297083/CFTOKEN/85264747/fuseaction/ showNewsItem/newsItemID/6857). Objective 19.1 E--Increase Knowledge and Awareness of Work Zones Training regarding work zones and work zone safety is important for drivers, workers, and agency personnel. PI&E campaigns can be used to educate drivers on work zone safety issues at both a high level and a project level. Drivers should know how to interpret visual cues as they approach and drive through work zones. Training programs for staff--both office staff who may design work zones and traffic control plans and field staff--are important elements in a program to reduce work zone crashes. 19.1 E1--Disseminate Work Zone Safety Information to Road Users (T) Communication of work zone safety information to road users is an important aspect of improving the ways in which road users interact with work zones. Three types of communication are needed. Driver education and training: educating drivers, pedestrians, and other road users on the meaning of work zone traffic control devices and appropriate actions to take in work zones. Safety awareness campaigns: creating an awareness among road users that work zones require more caution than nonwork areas. Real-time work zone condition communication: media reports, advanced traveler information systems, websites, and telephone information lines to alert road users about the conditions in a given work zone and alternative routes or modes. Driver Education and Training A failure to understand and interpret the traffic control provided in a work zone could result in driver error and potentially a crash. This is especially true for older and younger drivers. Research indicates that driver understanding of work zone traffic control is lacking. For example: Huddleston et al. (1982) conducted a lab study to evaluate driver understanding of work zone flagger signals. The study indicated that most of the signals that involved the use of a stop/slow sign paddle and/or hand motion were understood by the drivers, but the signals in which a flag alone was used were less effective. Swanson et al. (1997) have indicated that older drivers have difficulty in detecting, reading, and understanding symbolic traffic signs. Comprehension for some symbols is as high as 90 percent, but for others, less than half of drivers understand the meaning. Hoyer and Familant (1987) suggest that older drivers could be particularly disadvantaged by changes in roadway geometry and operations such as those found in construction zones. V-96

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES Ford and Picha (2000) indicated that surveyed teenage drivers understood traffic control devices to only a moderate degree. Of 53 traffic control devices tested (which included construction warning signs), only 9 were understood by more than 80 percent of the respondents. As such, driver education courses should include instruction on what actions drivers are to take when they encounter specific traffic control devices. This information should be included not only in courses for new drivers and refresher courses for more experienced drivers, but also in driver manuals and other instructional materials distributed to drivers. Informational brochures on the meanings of work zone traffic control devices can be distributed at department of motor vehicle offices and rest areas, as well as at events where DOT personnel, department of public safety personnel, police officers, or others interact with the public. These materials should also be distributed where pedestrians, bicyclists, and transit users will be and to residences and businesses in the vicinity of a planned work zone. Work zones deserve special consideration during design of the traffic control plan because of their strong potential to violate a driver's expectations. Signs and channelizing devices will contribute to successful interpretation by drivers. Sign legends or symbols and channelizing conventions can vary even within a state and may not meet MUTCD recommendations. Standardized communication with drivers will remove some of the guesswork from driving into and through work zones. Safety Awareness Campaigns PI&E campaigns for work zones are typically intended to promote an understanding of broad work zone safety issues and an awareness among drivers and other road users that (a) their personal safety will depend on having good knowledge of work zone operations and controls and (b) driving carefully in work zones requires more caution than in nonwork areas. Perhaps the most visible program highlighting work zone safety issues is the National Work Zone Awareness Week (http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/wzs/nwzsweek04.htm), which is designed to bring widespread attention to the problem of work zone safety and mobility. The event is co-sponsored by the FHWA, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, and ATSSA, with the cooperation of the American Road and Transportation Builders Association and the Associated General Contractors. Refer to Appendix 8 for the 2004 National Work Zone Awareness Week poster. PI&E campaigns may target such work zone safety problems as flagger instructions, early merging, and driver awareness and comprehension of work zone messages. Focus groups have identified public service announcement campaigns as a potential means to improve driver behavior in work zones (King et al., 1999) Real-Time Work Zone Condition Communication Notifying road users about what impacts a given work zone will have on travel and what travel alternatives there are can help road users make appropriate decisions regarding travel through a particular work zone. Many DOTs have been providing updated work zone information on their websites so that people can better plan their trips and anticipate the V-97

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES conditions that they will encounter. Media alert bulletins, changeable message signs with route information, brochures, and toll-free telephone numbers are examples of methods for communicating work zone traffic and safety information to highways users. This type of communication is discussed in more detail in Strategy 19.1 B1, the strategy in which use of ITS in work zones is covered. EXHIBIT V-28 Strategy Attributes for Disseminating Work Zone Safety Information to Road Users (T) Attribute Description Technical Attributes Target The principal targets of this strategy are all road users. This strategy should help reduce crashes where contributing factors may be lack of knowledge of the meaning of traffic control devices, lack of awareness of the need for additional caution in work zones, and lack of knowledge of conditions in a given work zone or alternatives to driving through the work zone. A failure to adequately determine the desired action either in advance of or while traveling through a work zone can cause erratic maneuvers that can lead to crashes. Rear-end, side swipe, and head-on crashes are common crash types that occur when drivers suddenly stop or suddenly change lanes or paths. Motorists and pedestrians who travel in work zones can benefit from being able to better interpret work zone traffic control. This strategy is appropriate for all work zones. Driver education programs are intended to provide knowledge needed to travel through all work zones. PI&E campaigns and real-time work zone condition updates can be designed for individual projects and therefore can be customized to the project type, duration, drivers, and any new or different technologies used in the work zone. Expected Effectiveness Improved dissemination of work zone safety information to road users has not been proven to be effective, and it will be difficult to do so. However, it is expected that increasing driver knowledge about what to expect in work zones and how to react to traffic control devices will lessen risky behaviors. While there is evidence that misunderstanding traffic control devices can lead to crashes, there is no published evidence that this strategy is effective for work zones. However, the strategy is expected to improve safety in the work zone. Providing updated information on work zone activities and potential delays can reduce driver frustration and result in increased goodwill for an agency. Good PI&E campaigns heighten awareness of a problem and garner high approval ratings. Many agencies have indicated that their public image has been enhanced as a result of their PI&E campaigns. At times, the PI&E campaign may include special emphasis on enforcement. PI&E campaigns, done in conjunction with special enforcement, have been shown to enhance the effectiveness of the enforcement effort. Keys to Success A key to success is identifying and reaching as large a percentage of the target audience as possible. Program materials should be created professionally and designed for the designated audience. Materials should focus on specific issues and behaviors in work zones, appeal to drivers to drive differently in a work zone, or discuss alternatives to driving through a given work zone as appropriate for the intended goals of the information dissemination program. Focus groups and public surveys can help identify the target audiences. V-98

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES EXHIBIT V-28 (Continued) Strategy Attributes for Disseminating Work Zone Safety Information to Road Users (T) Attribute Description Motorists should be given specific information on how to handle work zone driving tasks. Awareness can be promoted through driver education programs as well as public outreach activities. Adding general information on work zone safety to booklets and pamphlets made available through the driver licensing agencies can add significantly to the impact of this effort, since drivers' attention to such matters is at its height during license renewal. The same principle applies to students in driver education courses. It will be easier to educate the public with an educational brochure if there is a standardized set of signs, markings, and channelizing devices in the jurisdiction rather than if there are so many variations that the driver gets confused. Those in charge of PI&E campaigns should cultivate and maintain good contacts with the print and broadcast media. Media representatives can be invited to planning and stakeholder meetings. Means for receiving free space or time can be sought as part of the media's responsibility to provide public service. Highway agencies should ensure that PI&E programs are scheduled when most likely to maximize the exposure of the message to the target population (i.e. during construction season). Campaigns should center on local conditions and situations familiar to the intended target population. In addition, work zone information provided to the roadway user needs to be updated and accurate. Radio public service announcements, billboards, ads in theater playbills, and messages on transit vehicles are effective methods for communicating with target populations at desired times. Potential Difficulties PI&E campaigns may not reach a large portion of the targeted audience if appropriate dissemination methods are not used. A range of media may be needed, including television, radio, newspaper, Internet, club and association meeting presentations, and other measures deemed appropriate for a specific project or a particular area of the country. Consideration should be given to people who may need materials in languages other than English or in alternative formats to accommodate disabilities. Ensuring that updated and reliable information on work zone activities is provided to the motorist can be time consuming. Appropriate Measures Process measures include documenting the number and types of different programs and Data used to disseminate information, the frequency of different media used (radio ads, brochures, etc.), and the population exposed to the message. Level of expenditure is another possible process measure. The impact of a program on driver attitude, knowledge and understanding, or interpretation of devices can be assessed by analyzing a sample of people in the target area. This analysis would require a measurement of attitudes, knowledge, and understanding at the start of the program and another at the conclusion so that comparisons could be made. Measurement may be done in a number of ways, including surveys (e.g., telephone, roadside, or mail interviews) and focus groups. Because of many intervening variables, it is not feasible to directly measure the effectiveness of educational programs in terms of effect on crash experience. However, surrogate measures may be employed, including before and after test results, interviews, and observation of change in behavior. Crash frequency and severity are key safety effectiveness measures and should be measured both before and after a specific campaign. However, these direct safety impacts are not feasible to measure in a valid manner for general information campaigns, because many variables come into play. V-99

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES EXHIBIT V-28 (Continued) Strategy Attributes for Disseminating Work Zone Safety Information to Road Users (T) Attribute Description Traffic volume data are also needed to represent exposure. Studying attributes of drivers involved in work zone crashes may help identify areas of the population upon which to focus future campaign efforts. Associated Needs State driver handbooks and driver instruction manuals may need to be revised to clarify the meaning and intent of work zone traffic control devices. There is a need for cooperation among various media agencies to effectively implement this strategy. Skilled professionals are needed to create the materials employed in the training or PI&E campaign and should be involved from the start of project planning. Use of people with expertise in listener and viewer characteristics will allow for optimal targeting of messages broadcast by various media outlets. Managing information from multiple work zones across a wide geographic area may require additional data management strategies for an agency. If evaluations will be done using surveys, the necessary expertise may not be available within the agency. Survey specialists can be contracted to create the survey questions, administer the survey, and summarize and analyze the results. Quite often, universities and colleges offer a survey service. Organizational and Institutional Attributes Organizational, A cooperative effort with driver educators and departments of motor vehicles is Institutional and desirable. Policy Issues Revising existing signs to improve comprehension requires changes to the agency's traffic control device manual. This will usually require that the modifications have been adopted by the National Committee on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. This involves a major rule-making process at the federal level and may require rule making at the state level. This process may take years before changes can be implemented on a widespread basis. If PI&E campaign expertise is not available within an agency, it may be necessary to involve another agency or use a private media consultant. Since the cooperation of the media and other nongovernmental organizations is so important, a mechanism is desirable for maintaining communication and involvement. If an agency has a public relations section, that office would be of help. Issues Affecting The time required to start the program will depend on the time needed to update Implementation Time and disseminate materials for training, prepare media materials for PI&E campaigns, secure time and space for the dissemination of materials, or put a system in place for providing real-time information to the traveling public. These programs should be well planned before implementation. The more time invested in the planning process, the greater the likelihood of the strategy reaching the target audience and being effective. The time to implement this strategy could be relatively short, depending on how much of the system is already in place, but 6 months or more could be required to launch a successful program. If a highway agency has previously worked with driver educators, departments of motor vehicles, and media outlets, then the implementation time will be reduced, and only the specific messages or materials will need to be developed once it is agreed that agencies will collaborate on this program as well. If an advanced traveler V-100

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES EXHIBIT V-28 (Continued) Strategy Attributes for Disseminating Work Zone Safety Information to Road Users (T) Attribute Description information system is already in place on a roadway for which work is planned, or if the system is planned as part of the work, implementation time will be reduced, and it is the specific wording of the messages and the alternative routes that will be needed. Implementation of changes to signs and other traffic control devices may take a long time. Costs Involved There would be costs involved in updating existing and/or developing new training materials. These costs could be variable depending on the nature of the materials being developed and the extent of the materials that have already been developed. Dissemination of the information, including making drivers aware that new materials are available, will add to the costs of implementation. Public service announcements on radio and television do not have airtime charges, but are more expensive to produce than other formats and may be aired at less than ideal times. Printed or billboard ads and ads on transit vehicles can be produced for less than broadcast messages, but there may be monthly charges for posting. Another option for communicating with the targeted audience that may be cost-effective is messages placed in playbills at theaters in the area of a work zone. The costs involved in a PI&E campaign can vary widely depending on the type of media distribution (e.g., television, radio, newspaper, or website), the intended length of the campaign or project, and the frequency with which the message is disseminated. Costs are also associated with specific projects, such as changeable message signs, toll-free telephone information numbers, and websites. Staff resources are needed to run and manage the program, and project-level staff will need to provide project- specific information to the agency staff running the information program. Training and Other Driver trainers should be educated in the meaning and intent of traffic control devices Personnel Needs and in driving safely through work zones so they are better able to emphasize this in driver education curriculums. If PI&E expertise is not available within an agency, it may be necessary to involve another agency or use a private media consultant. Some staff may have to go through a brief training course to make more effective public presentations on the topic. Legislative Needs None identified. Other Key Attributes Compatibility of This strategy can be used in conjunction with other strategies to improve Different Strategies safety in work zones, especially Strategy 19.1 B1 and the strategies in Objective 19.1 D. V-101

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES Key References Federal Highway Administration and American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Work Zone Operations Best Practices Guidebook. FHWA-OP-00-010. Washington, D.C. April 2000. Ford, G.L., and D.L. Picha, "Teenage Drivers' Understanding of Traffic Control Devices." Transportation Research Record 1708, Transportation Research Board, 2000. Hoyer, W.J., and M.E. Familant, "Adult Age Differences in the Rate of Processing Expectancy Information." Cognitive Development, Vol. 2, pp. 59-70. 1987. Huddleston, N.D., S.H. Richards, and C.L. Dudek, "Driver Understanding of Work-Zone Flagger Signals." Transportation Research Record 864, Transportation Research Board, 1982. King, LE., M.R. Kane, and M.L. Carpenter, Motorists' Perception of Work Zone Safety. ITE International Conference Proceedings, March 1999. Staplin, L., K. Lococo, S. Byington, and D. Harkey, Guidelines and Recommendations to Accommodate Older Drivers and Pedestrians, FHWA Publication No. FHWA-RD-01-051, May 2001. http://www.tfhrc.gov/humanfac/01105/cover.htm. Swanson, H.A., D.W. Kline, R.E. Dewar, "Guidelines for Traffic Sign Signals." ITE Journal, Vol. 67, No. 5, May 1997. Information on Current Knowledge Regarding Agencies or Organizations That Are Implementing This Strategy The FHWA/AASHTO report Work Zone Operations Best Practices Guidebook (2000) describes public relations, education, and outreach activities pursued by several states. A description of each practice, benefits realized, and applicable project locations are provided. Prominent activities and the DOTs conducting them include the following: Development of media partnerships (Oregon DOT). Regular contacts with state and local media have provided an opportunity for consistent dialogue on work zone safety issues. These regular contacts have increased the likelihood of coverage of work zone safety issues in the media as well as kept motorists better informed of DOT construction and maintenance activities and the effect of these activities on travel plans. Media outreach program for construction and maintenance work zones (Mississippi DOT). Radio, television, newspapers, and faxes are used to notify the public of upcoming construction and maintenance projects. The purpose of the program is to reduce traffic delays for the motoring public. The program has created good will for the DOT, and it is believed that the information provided has increased safety for the motoring public as well as the workers. "Wizard" citizens band (CB) radio transmissions (Pennsylvania DOT). These transmissions provide traffic safety and work zone information message broadcasts on CB radio channels. As such, the activity is geared primarily at long-haul truckers. The "Wizard" monitors CB transmissions on one or more frequencies. When it V-102

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES detects a lull in activity, the "Wizard" will broadcast a safety message. This system provides truck drivers with information on work zones and any changes in traffic patterns. Dissemination of work zone information at rest areas, welcome stations, truck stops, motels, and restaurants (Wyoming DOT). This activity allows for motorists to plan trips around construction schedules and potential roadway closure, providing the opportunity for reducing driver exposure to work zones. The Pennsylvania DOT also disseminates brochures highlighting safe driving trips when driving through construction areas and work zones. Use of a public relations firm (Iowa DOT). A contracted public relations firm has raised awareness and educated drivers about the dangers of work zones by "getting the word out" via television and radio spots. The campaign, geared toward improving work zone awareness and safety, has improved the DOT's image and increased driver awareness of work zone issues. Public outreach through neighborhood liaisons (Massachusetts Highway Department). Depending on the size and scope of the project, liaisons can be assigned to neighborhoods affected by construction. In Massachusetts, the liaisons became the "face" of the project by organizing community meetings and serving as a conduit for information exchanges between the Massachusetts Highway Department and the community at large. This program has helped the community members feel that they have an influence in decision making and gives them confidence that their concerns will be heard. A public relations handbook for contractors (Colorado DOT). The effort was undertaken to provide guidance for construction site managers to improve their image. The handbook provides guidance on appropriate notifications, media releases, press tips, crisis management strategies, and a checklist for public relations. There are additional public outreach activities detailed in the Work Zone Operations Best Practices Guidebook. Additional information can be found at http://ops.fhwa.dot.gov/ wz/practices/best/bestpractices.htm. The National Work Zone Safety Information Clearinghouse also provides links to work zone safety tips and information on outreach efforts, public awareness, and public education campaigns related to work zone safety issues. Additional information can be found at http://wzsafety.tamu.edu/. Many, if not all, states have areas on their websites highlighting efforts and providing information on work zone safety. An example website is the North Carolina DOTs website, which provides statistics on North Carolina and national work zone safety, safe driving tips for work zones, information about statewide and national work zone safety events, clips of multiple public service announcements related to work zone safety, and information on current work zone activities throughout the state. More information can be found at http://www.doh.dot.state.nc.us/safety/workzone/. Virginia DOT also provides updated information on current work zone activities across the state as part of its 511 Travel Information Service. Additional details can be found at http://www.511virginia.org/. V-103

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES 19.1 E2--Provide Work Zone Training Programs and Manuals for Designers and Field Staff (T) The recent FHWA rule (http://a257.g.akamaitech.net/7/257/2422/06jun20041800/ edocket.access.gpo.gov/2004/04-20340.htm) requires that work zone personnel receive training appropriate to their positions. Training programs for office and field staff (agency, contractor, and utility company staff) are important elements of a program to reduce work zone crashes, and evidence of the importance of training can be found in the MUTCD. Many highway agencies have developed work zone safety training programs for their own staff and for contractor staff. Although some agencies have not done the same, courses are available through the FHWA. Courses are also often available through labor unions. Problems with offering courses are often more related to funding and scheduling than to availability of training materials and instructors. The MUTCD discussion of temporary traffic control fundamentals states that everyone performing tasks related to temporary traffic control should receive training for the respective tasks and that only people with training should supervise the selection, placement, and maintenance of temporary traffic control devices. In addition, the recently finalized FHWA rule on managing the safety and mobility impacts of work zones demonstrates the need for training of people with work zone responsibilities. Many education and training options are available to address work zone safety issues. Workshops, training videos, and single- to several-day courses are provided by many organizations and transportation departments across the country. A review of the National Work Zone Safety Clearinghouse website (http://wzsafety.tamu.edu/) reveals that the work zone safety training database contains almost 1,200 records of description for videos, courses, workshops, conferences, materials, and certification programs that deal with topics of work zone safety. Many, if not all, states have specific work zone training programs and courses geared toward specific policies and procedures. Many prominent training programs are also produced on a national basis from organizations such as the American Road and Transportation Builders Association, ATSSA, the Associated General Contractors of America, the FHWA (through the National Highway Institute), and the National Association of County Engineers. With all of the work zone training options available, highway agencies should identify the gaps in training available to their personnel and contractors, as well as identify the staff who have not yet received the appropriate training. The missing materials need to be developed and a program needs to be established to ensure that personnel receive the most up-to-date training appropriate for their levels of responsibilities. Development and use of work zone field manuals for staff are important components of a training program. Many states, as well as ATSSA, provide field manuals. Providing easily accessible materials to staff in the field can further promote the awareness of, and familiarity with, existing agency work zone processes. Agencies can develop field versions of full-scale policies and procedures or tailor the field manuals to address specific areas of concern with work zone setups. V-104

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES EXHIBIT V-29 Strategy Attributes for Providing Work Zone Training Programs and Manuals for Designers and Field Staff (T) Attribute Description Technical Attributes Target The principal target of this strategy is the staff in an agency whose responsibilities involve design and operation of work zones. Targeted crashes are those where a contributing factor is work zones that were improperly or inappropriately designed or implemented. Implementation of this strategy will involve personnel in the design and operation of work zones. This includes highway designers, maintenance and construction field staff, and utility company workers. All work zones can benefit from this strategy. Expected Effectiveness It is expected that providing focused work zone training to office and field staff will improve work zone safety, though it is not feasible to do a valid measurement of an impact from a support function that is relatively far removed from the road operation. Providing easily accessible materials can promote staff awareness of agency policies and procedures. Keys to Success A key to success is agency pairing of the development of courses and materials with a program to ensure that appropriate personnel are exposed to them. Such a program would include course attendance, independent study, and testing of knowledge and attitudes. Appropriate employees for the program include field personnel, designers, inspectors, maintenance personnel, and others who would be involved in work zone design or operation. Ohio DOT requires all design consultants to take an Ohio-specific work zone design course (focusing mainly on design of freeway work zones) and pass a test. The Ohio DOT Traffic Academy conducts the course and charges consultants the direct costs for training personnel from their offices. This process helps speed the project development process. Consideration should be given to making training materials (e.g., computer-based materials) available for self-study if an agency considers this an effective means of training for a given topic. Mandatory attendance at training classes or certification requirements should be considered for some work zone activities; many states require contractors to provide trained or certified work zone supervisors and flaggers. Personnel may be tested to ensure that the desired impacts have been achieved on knowledge and attitudes. In addition, testing will provide guidance on how to improve the effectiveness of the training initiative. Offering incentives to successfully complete the training should also be considered. All training programs should be adapted to an agency's particular needs, thereby addressing the agency's own specific experiences and issues and providing consistency with the agency's policies and procedures. Agencies should consider making the training and manuals available to local jurisdictions that will be designing and operating work zones. This will help ensure consistency in work zone design and traffic control in a region. Potential Difficulties Potential difficulties include getting personnel to attend and successfully complete courses and independent study programs. Most agencies are experiencing a lack of availability of staff to do the basic work of the agency without even considering time taken for training. Also, many staff members are not inclined to spend time in a classroom or study in front of a computer. Without adequate support for the program from upper management, including incentives for successful completion, it may be difficult to achieve the desired results. Obtaining resources for holding training and for workers to travel to training is also a potential difficulty, as is finding adequately trained staff to teach courses. V-105

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES EXHIBIT V-29 (Continued) Strategy Attributes for Providing Work Zone Training Programs and Manuals for Designers and Field Staff (T) Attribute Description It is often the case that personnel who have been involved in any area of activity (e.g., design or operation of work zones) for a long time will have developed habits and opinions that may not be optimal. Therefore, it should be expected that there will be some resistance to new ideas and procedures. To help overcome this resistance, it may be useful to monitor the change in performance of personnel after they return to their work. In order to minimize the negative effects on new personnel of out-of-date or inappropriate practices and attitudes among existing staff, new personnel should participate in training at the start of their employment or soon thereafter. Contractors may also be reluctant to invest in training for workers who are only employed for short periods (such as a flagger who will only be needed for 1 day). Availability of contractor staff for training is a potential difficulty, as well. Many contractors work in several states in a region, and it would be burdensome to make their workers meet training requirements for all of the states in which they will work. Oregon DOT has a reciprocal program with neighboring states to accept flagger certifications. New York State DOT will accept valid up-to-date certification from ATSSA, unions, or other organizations providing training. In areas where a significant portion of the workers speak English as a second language, training materials may need to be offered in languages other than English in order to increase the likelihood that workers will be able to benefit from the training. Appropriate Measures Process measures of program effectiveness include the number and type of training and Data courses given, the number and type of attendees at training events, and the number of field manuals distributed to staff. It is not feasible to measure effectiveness of training programs in terms of effect on crash experience because of the many intervening variables. However, surrogate measures may be employed, including before-and-after test results and interviews and observation of change in personnel performance. The involvement of improper traffic control setup or practice in work zone crashes should be compiled by agencies and used to identify training needs. Associated Needs The development, presentation, and assessment of training materials require the involvement of persons having educational training and experience. Some agencies may have to arrange for external contractors to help with this effort, should they desire to develop their own materials instead of using what has been developed and tested. Organizational and Institutional Attributes Organizational, A plan should be established for alerting agency personnel and contracted field staff Institutional and to the availability of training materials and field manuals. There will be a need for Policy Issues upper-level management to actively support a plan for training agency personnel. To ensure that contractors' personnel are adequately trained, the agency may consider implementing a training certification process. It may be possible to include this requirement of certification in contracts. The agency developing the materials should consider ways to work cooperatively with local jurisdictions to develop opportunities for providing training and field manuals to appropriate local staff. V-106

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES EXHIBIT V-29 (Continued) Strategy Attributes for Providing Work Zone Training Programs and Manuals for Designers and Field Staff (T) Attribute Description Issues Affecting Implementation time for this strategy could be short because there are a substantial Implementation Time number of existing training courses available. Development and design of new educational materials will lengthen the implementation time. This strategy is envisioned to be ongoing and long term because materials will be developed and revised. There is time involved in establishing certification systems and maintaining a database of certified personnel. The Oregon DOT contracts this task to a community college that also provides the training. Costs Involved Costs to attend existing training courses vary but should be relatively low unless agencies are training large numbers of staff. There would be additional costs involved in developing and printing new training materials and field manuals. These costs could vary highly depending on the length of the training course and the nature of the materials being developed. Training and Other Special personnel may be needed to conduct the desired training. Contractor and Personnel Needs utility company staff need training in addition to agency staff, and field manuals should also be distributed to them. Legislative Needs None identified. Other Key Attributes Compatibility of This strategy can be used in conjunction with other strategies to improve safety in Different Strategies work zones. Key References Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), Work Zone Operations Best Practices Guidebook. FHWA- OP-00-010. Washington, D.C. April 2000. Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD). Washington, D.C. 2003. National Highway Institute courses: http://www.nhi.fhwa.dot.gov/. National Work Zone Safety Information Clearinghouse website: http://wzsafety.tamu.edu/. Virginia DOT website: http://www.virginiadot.org/business/trafficeng-default.asp. Information on Current Knowledge Regarding Agencies or Organizations That Are Implementing This Strategy Several state DOTs offer work zonerelated training courses. A few examples are available online: Minnesota: http://www.dot.state.mn.us/const/wzs/training.html Ohio: http://www.dot.state.oh.us/traffic/ V-107

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES Major activities and courses sponsored by the FHWA are listed below: A course on the Design and Operation of Work Zone Traffic Control. This course provides participants with information on the safest and most efficient work zone traffic controls. This includes the application of effective design and installation concepts, using signs and markings for detours, construction zones, and maintenance sites. For additional information, visit http://www.nhi.fhwa.dot.gov/ coursedesc.asp?coursenum=145. A course on the Design, Construction, and Maintenance of Highway Safety Appurtenances and Features. The course covers the design, construction, and maintenance of highways, as well as the purpose and performance requirements of state- of-the-art highway safety features, such as breakaway sign supports, breakaway utility poles, traffic barriers, impact attenuators, traversable terrain, and hardware features such as drainage inlets. The course describes how features function, what can go wrong, and how to recognize and correct improper installations. Additional information can be found online at http://www.nhi.fhwa.dot.gov/coursedesc.asp?coursenum=149. A course on Work Zone Traffic Control for Short-Term Maintenance Operations (http://www.nhi.fhwa.dot.gov/coursedesc.asp?coursenum=152). The course addresses typical short-term maintenance activities occurring on two-lane rural highways and multilane urban streets and highways. The course covers the applicable standards for work zone protection contained in the MUTCD, the need for proper application of devices, and liability issues of highway agencies and individuals. A course on Construction Zone Safety Inspection (http://www.nhi.fhwa.dot.gov/coursedesc.asp?coursenum=154). This course provides training in the management of traffic control plans and the inspection of construction zone safety devices. Topics covered include traffic control plan review, inspection of traffic control procedures and safety devices, and the resolution of discrepancies from the traffic control plan, as well as deficiencies in safety hardware maintenance. Hosting of Making Work Zones Work Better Workshops (http://ops.fhwa.dot.gov/wz/workshops/workshops.htm). These workshops promote the use of innovative practices, technologies, and products that have the potential to improve work zone mobility and safety. The workshops also include an open forum for discussion and information sharing to enhance the body of work zone knowledge and improve future work zone programs. CRP-CD-50: NCHRP Training for Night Road Work to Improve Safety and Operations. Training materials were developed as part of NCHRP Project 17-17 to complement NCHRP Reports 475 and 476. The training covers the night work decision process, project conceptual design, traffic control plan design, traffic control devices and safety features, and night work operations. Additional information can be found in NCHRP Research Results Digest 293 (http://trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=4474). Other courses are currently being developed by the FHWA and are expected to be available in 2005. This includes an advanced work zone training class. Additional training courses are also available through other organizations, such as ATSSA (http://www.atssa.com/rsti/ci.asp) and the American Road and Transportation Builders Association (http://www.artba.org/artba_store/). V-108