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SECTION VI--GUIDANCE FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF THE AASHTO STRATEGIC HIGHWAY SAFETY PLAN Implementation Step 5: Develop Alternative Approaches to Addressing the Problem General Description Having defined the problem and established a foundation, the next step is to find ways to address the identified problems. If the problem identification stage has been done effectively (see Appendix D for further details on identifying road safety problems), the characteristics of the problems should suggest one or more alternative ways for dealing with the problem. It is important that a full range of options be considered, drawing from areas dealing with enforcement, engineering, education, emergency medical services, and system management actions. Alternative strategies should be sought for both location-specific and systemic problems that have been identified. Location-specific strategies should pertain equally well to addressing high-hazard locations and to solving safety problems identified within projects that are being studied for reasons other than safety. Where site-specific strategies are being considered, visits to selected sites may be in order if detailed data and pictures are not available. In some cases, the emphasis area guides will provide tables that help connect the attributes of the problem with one or more appropriate strategies to use as countermeasures. Strategies should also be considered for application on a systemic basis. Examples include 1. Low-cost improvements targeted at problems that have been identified as significant in the overall highway safety picture, but not concentrated in a given location. 2. Action focused upon a specific driver population, but carried out throughout the jurisdiction. 3. Response to a change in policy, including modified design standards. 4. Response to a change in law, such as adoption of a new definition for DUI. In some cases, a strategy may be considered that is relatively untried or is an innovative variation from past approaches to treatment of a similar problem. Special care is needed to ensure that such strategies are found to be sound enough to implement on a wide-scale basis. Rather than ignoring this type of candidate strategy in favor of the more "tried-and- proven" approaches, consideration should be given to including a pilot-test component to the strategy. The primary purpose of this guide is to provide a set of strategies to consider for eliminating or lessening the particular road safety problem upon which the user is focusing. As pointed out in the first step of this process, the identification of the problem, and the selection of strategies, is a complex step that will be different for each case. Therefore, it is not feasible to provide a "formula" to follow. However, guidelines are available. There are a number of texts to which the reader can refer. Some of these are listed in Appendix B and Appendix D. VI-13
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SECTION VI--GUIDANCE FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF THE AASHTO STRATEGIC HIGHWAY SAFETY PLAN In addition, the tables referenced in Appendix G provide examples for linking identified problems with candidate strategies. The second part of this step is to assemble sets of strategies into alternative "program packages." Some strategies are complementary to others, while some are more effective when combined with others. In addition, some strategies are mutually exclusive. Finally, strategies may be needed to address roads across multiple jurisdictions. For instance, a package of strategies may need to address both the state and local highway system to have the desired level of impact. The result of this part of the activity will be a set of alternative "program packages" for the emphasis area. It may be desirable to prepare a technical memorandum at the end of this step. It would document the results, both for input into the next step and for internal reviews. The latter is likely to occur, since this is the point at which specific actions are being seriously considered. Specific Elements 1. Review problem characteristics and compare them with individual strategies, considering both their objectives and their attributes 1.1. Road-user behavior (law enforcement, licensing, adjudication) 1.2. Engineering 1.3. Emergency medical services 1.4. System management elements 2. Select individual strategies that do the following: 2.1. Address the problem 2.2. Are within the policies and constraints established 2.3. Are likely to help achieve the goals and objectives established for the program 3. Assemble individual strategies into alternative program packages expected to optimize achievement of goals and objectives 3.1. Cumulative effect to achieve crash reduction goal 3.2. Eliminate strategies that can be identified as inappropriate, or likely to be ineffective, even at this early stage of planning 4. Summarize the plan in a technical memorandum, describing attributes of individual strategies, how they will be combined, and why they are likely to meet the established goals and objectives VI-14