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SECTION V Description of Strategies Objectives The main goals of this guide are to reduce fatal work zone traffic crashes and to improve the overall work zone traffic safety for workers, motorists, and other highway users. Specific objectives include improvements in work zone engineering practices; enforcement of traffic laws and regulations; education of drivers, designers, and highway workers; and improvement of agency policies and procedures. The objectives for improving safety in work zones are as follows: 19.1 A Reduce the number, duration, and impact of work zones--Reducing the exposure of travelers to work zones and of workers to traffic will lessen the opportunities for crashes to occur. This can be accomplished using maintenance and construction practices that increase pavement and bridge service life, accelerate construction and maintenance activities where possible, schedule highway work to avoid periods of high traffic volumes, and provide adequate space for future road work in new project development. 19.1 B Improve work zone traffic control devices--Work zones often present a higher driver-information and vehicular-control workload than nonwork zones. The devices used to convey information to drivers and to alert them to the presence of workers and potential roadway hazards need to be visible and have a clear and consistent meaning. Visibility of workers (especially flaggers) and their vehicles is necessary for the protection of both workers and highway users. 19.1 C Improve work zone design practices--Addressing safety for both highway users and workers in the planning stages of a project can help reduce the potential for crashes related to the work zone. Establishing work zone design guidance, including providing consistent design features across a jurisdiction, provides highway users with an environment that better meets their expectations. Positive protection of the work space from the traffic separation can help reduce potential for conflicts between road users and/or workers. The design of work zones can help improve safety for all users by providing cues for, and accommodation of, both motorized vehicles and nonmotorized travelers. 19.1 D Improve driver compliance with work zone traffic controls--Many crashes are caused or aggravated by drivers' noncompliance with traffic control devices or traffic laws in work zones. Enforcement campaigns (conventional or automated) have the potential to reduce undesirable driver behavior and improve safety in work zones. Signs that convey credible messages regarding speed limits or presence of workers contribute to driver compliance with traffic laws. 19.1 E Increase knowledge and awareness of work zones--Training of highway users, designers, and workers can improve how work zones are designed, set up, and used. Public information and education campaigns can help improve driver skills in guiding vehicles through work zones. Training programs for agency staff and workers can help V-1

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES ensure that traffic control devices designed and set up in work zones are appropriate and provide positive guidance, rather than create additional clutter and driver confusion. 19.1 F Develop procedures to effectively manage work zones--Work zone management practices, such as crash data system improvements, safety awards, interagency coordination, and inspections, can help bring about an improvement in work zone safety at an agency level. Exhibit V-1 shows the strategies of these objectives. The order in which the strategies appear does not imply a priority with which they should be considered. Ultimately, the goal toward which the objectives and strategies are directed is to improve work zone safety for road users and workers. Most of the strategies are relatively low-cost, short-term treatments to improve safety in work zones, consistent with the focus of the entire SHSP. For each of these strategies, a detailed discussion of the attributes, effectiveness, and other key factors describing the strategy is presented below. Several high-cost, long-term strategies that have been proven effective in improving safety in work zones are also presented in this section, but in less detail. While application of these strategies is outside the implementation framework of the SHSP, inclusion of these strategies in this guide serves to complete the picture of proven, tried, and experimental strategies to improve safety in work zones. EXHIBIT V-1 Emphasis Area Objectives and Strategies Objectives Strategies 19.1 A Reduce the number, 19.1 A1 Improve maintenance and construction practices (P) duration, and impact of work zones 19.1 A2 Utilize full-time roadway closure for construction operations (T) 19.1 A3 Utilize time-related contract provisions (P) 19.1 A4 Use nighttime road work (P) 19.1 A5 Use demand management programs to reduce volumes through work zones (P) 19.1 A6 Design future work zone capacity into new or reconstructed highways (T) 19.1 B Improve work zone 19.1 B1 Implement ITS strategies to improve safety (E) traffic control devices 19.1 B2 Improve visibility of work zone traffic control devices (T) 19.1 B3 Improve visibility of work zone personnel and vehicles (varies) 19.1 B4 Reduce flaggers' exposure to traffic (T) 19.1 C Improve work zone 19.1 C1 Establish work zone design guidance (T) design practices 19.1 C2 Implement measures to reduce work space intrusions (and limit consequences of intrusions) (T) 19.1 C3 Improve work zone safety for pedestrians, bicyclists, motorcyclists, and heavy-truck drivers (T) V-2