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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES for the AASHTO plan, the guides may address the details regarding the design and implementation of strategies for improving safety management systems. Strategies Detailed in Other Emphasis Area Guides--Several of these objectives, and many of the corresponding strategies, apply to other emphasis areas, too. Strategies that overlap between various guides in this NCHRP Report 500 series are discussed briefly in this section, and the other guides (as noted) should be referenced for more details. For example, treatments for work zones would improve safety for pedestrians, bicyclists, and older drivers. Any program targeted at the safety problem covered in this guide on work zones should be created with consideration given to potentially appropriate strategies in these other guides. Objective 19.1 A--Reduce the Number, Duration, and Impact of Work Zones The fewer times motorists encounter work zones, the fewer chances there are for work- zone-related crashes to occur. Reducing the number of work zones, the length of time during which work zones are set up, and the adverse impacts that work zones have on traffic will reduce the exposure of road users and workers to crashes. In that vein, strategies in this objective that are known to reduce traffic volumes through work zones are classified as "proven," since the lower volume is expected to result in a lower crash experience. Safety practitioners can reduce exposure to crashes by also using innovative practices to accelerate completion of construction and maintenance projects and bidding practices that strive to reduce the duration and impact of crashes on traffic. In addition, satisfactory safety records on previous projects may be a suitable criterion for contractors in the selection process. The impacts of the various types of work zone traffic control plans on traffic operations should be thoroughly reviewed while planning the construction project and setting up the work zone. Decisions about what time of day that work will be performed and how traffic will be maintained through a work zone should be made with thorough knowledge of the traffic impacts that a particular alternative may have. 19.1 A1--Improve Maintenance and Construction Practices (P) This strategy includes the following: Accelerating construction Better management of assets, including improving pavement maintenance Rehabilitation practices General Description Transportation entities are continually seeking innovative methods to design and construct their projects to be more efficient and to have less impact on the motoring public. While traditional methods can still be effective in certain applications, a number of new V-6

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES practices can provide the same services in less time and for less money while reducing the duration of work zones and the exposure of workers to vehicle traffic. These new practices, however, are not without potential difficulties. While they certainly have the ability to add tremendous value to current construction practices, they also often come with greater bid cost. Planning and coordination among highway agencies, contractors, and other organizations involved in construction and highway safety can help reduce these risks. Major areas of improvement are being targeted, including methods to accelerate construction and to improve management of assets (including pavement maintenance and rehabilitation). These areas of improvement have varying degrees of benefit, as well as varying degrees of risk. It is ultimately up to each individual transportation agency to determine which areas could be beneficial to its respective programs. A brief description of these methods is provided below: Accelerated construction. Accelerated construction techniques are being used more frequently across the country. The various methods of accelerated construction allow agencies the opportunity to do more construction in the same amount of time or less. Examples include prefabricated concrete elements and rapid-set or super-plasticized concrete. Accelerated construction techniques are applied for critical and/or high- volume facilities for which the societal costs of closure or loss of mobility are considered significant. Better asset management. Limited budgets and increased traffic volumes (resulting in increased difficultly in closing roadways or lanes for road work) lead highway agencies to improve management of their assets. The goal is to monitor the condition of roadway infrastructure elements so as to appropriately schedule improvement projects. This includes pavement management, described below, but also management of all roadway infrastructure elements so as to extend life cycles and increase the length of time between work zone setups on the same section of roadway. Better tracking of the condition of infrastructure elements allows agencies to cost-effectively target elements for preventative maintenance as well. Improving pavement maintenance and rehabilitation is critically important to all agencies managing roadways because most agencies have an extremely large number of miles of pavement to manage. A pavement management program can help manage the tradeoff between minor pavement maintenance that can extend the life of a pavement and larger-scale repaving projects that would otherwise need to be performed more frequently. Developing and maintaining a system to consistently monitor the pavement conditions across the respective jurisdictions requires an efficient, well-coordinated plan. The goal is to schedule rehabilitation efforts to avoid rehabilitation that is either too early or too late, thereby reducing the number of times that maintenance will be performed on a section of highway and reducing exposure of road users and workers to work zone conditions. Accelerated construction and better asset management may not initially be thought of as safety strategies. However, to the extent that they achieve the objective of reducing time exposure of workers and drivers to work zones, they clearly can be thought of as core strategies in promoting overall work zone safety. V-7

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES EXHIBIT V-2 Strategy Attributes for Improving Maintenance and Construction Practices (P) Attribute Description Technical Attributes Target Improvement of maintenance and construction practices targets all types of work zone crashes by reducing traffic exposure to work zones. This is done by shortening the duration of the work or increasing the life of a roadway (and therefore reducing the frequency of maintenance and rehabilitation or replacement work). The strategy is aimed at improving existing practices, specifically methods by which the practices could be applied with greater efficiency and effectiveness. This strategy applies to a wide variety of project types, including both construction and maintenance operations, depending on the specific procedures discussed. Expected Effectiveness Construction and maintenance projects that are performed over shorter time periods and less frequently will reduce the exposure of traffic to the special dangers of driving in work zones. All other factors (traffic volumes, traffic control plan, weather conditions, etc.) being equal, the work zone operation completed in a shorter time would be expected to have fewer related crashes. Accelerated Construction: Construction techniques that shorten the time during which a work zone is in place will reduce the exposure of traffic to the work zone and of workers to traffic. Materials designed for accelerating a work project (such as prefabricated elements or fast-cure concrete) will reduce construction time. Better Asset Management: Cost-effective management of resources is an essential component of any infrastructure program. Research indicates that a systematic approach to maintaining comprehensive asset data (i.e., inventory and rating) enables the cost-effective optimization of those assets in the future, which would be expected to reduce the frequency of work zones needed to rehabilitate, repair, or reconstruct a given asset. Multicriteria decision making with regard to asset improvement has been shown to optimize the overall system given a limited amount of resources for improvement (Li and Sinha, 2004). Preventive pavement maintenance--when applied correctly and at the appropriate time for the given pavement condition, traffic constraints, and other design considerations--can reduce the rate of deterioration. Presently, no sufficient data are available to measure the effectiveness of pavement maintenance programs in reducing the need to rehabilitate pavement; however, the effect is expected to be substantial. Keys to Success Accelerated Construction: Accelerated construction is attainable through several methods. The key to successfully applying any of these methods is continuous review and coordination between the design and construction disciplines. Coordination with the construction industry to obtain contractors' acceptance of the methods is essential, as well. Additionally, using the most appropriate method for each respective project will help to ensure success. Quality of materials is also a critical key to successful construction acceleration. The use of substandard practices or materials must not lower the quality of the product for the respective acceleration. Better Asset Management: To optimize pavement and structure service lives, an effective asset management program is essential. Such a program should identify agency pavement and structure assets, track their condition over time, and program maintenance and rehabilitation to optimize overall service life. V-8

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES EXHIBIT V-2 (Continued) Strategy Attributes for Improving Maintenance and Construction Practices (P) Attribute Description Early preventive treatment is the key to successful maintenance and rehabilitation of pavement. Prevention treatments can be done on a time-based trigger or a condition- based trigger. Potential Difficulties Accelerated Construction: Acceleration of construction should not sacrifice the quality of construction or design. Any process that is performed too quickly has the potential to sacrifice quality. This is particularly true in the application of prefabricated materials. Such materials can often be constructed offsite and out of the presence of construction inspectors. Thus, careful inspection of the respective materials is extremely important. Plant inspection agreements and fabrication certifications can be established to ensure this careful inspection. In addition, the lack of availability of enough skilled workers during accelerated schedules can potentially compromise the quality of the final product. Use of prefabricated elements may reduce the need for additional workers on projects with accelerated schedules. Weather conditions could also present potential difficulties to accelerated construction because adverse weather conditions will inevitably lengthen the time of construction. Projects with longer construction schedules will have a greater chance of experiencing adverse weather. The use of new or innovative techniques may run counter to an agency's standard specifications and work approaches. Contractors may offer higher bids to reflect the higher risk and greater demands on their staff. Better Asset Management: Most highway agencies have a very large set of assets under their jurisdiction. Creating an inventory and rating system, as well as a future plan for those assets, is an effort that will require significant time, money, and personnel. If an agency is using predefined intervals for treatment of infrastructure elements, unforeseen changes in the highway environment may alter the need for treatment. If using threshold levels for initiating maintenance or rehabilitation, the threshold values should be continuously monitored and carefully interpreted to ensure that the correct treatments are provided at the correct times. Appropriate Measures In general, the change in the number and type of crashes occurring in work zones and Data will be the primary measure of effectiveness. Some reliance may have to be made upon other measures, such as the change in vehicle-miles or vehicle-hours of travel in work zones. Process measures may also be useful for measuring implementation of the strategy, including the number of work zones to which the desired practices are applied. Data needs are indicated below, according to the type of improved practice. Accelerated Construction: Long-term monitoring of accelerated construction methods to ensure that the methods provide similar performance as, and have service lives equivalent to, those of conventional construction methods. Appropriate materials testing is needed to measure warranty criteria. To help to determine the acceptability of various methods to implement the required improvements, safety practitioners can conduct public surveys to gauge local public opinion regarding roadway improvements that will directly affect their daily standard of living. V-9

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES EXHIBIT V-2 (Continued) Strategy Attributes for Improving Maintenance and Construction Practices (P) Attribute Description Better Asset Management: Maintaining up-to-date records and ratings for all assets would be required to determine need as well as to determine future asset improvements and maintenance requirements. Maintaining up-to-date pavement records and ratings would be required to determine need as well as to measure the effectiveness of maintenance application. Historical data can also be used to develop decision trees for use in future pavement and structure repair planning. Associated Needs Incentive programs, quality control programs, warranty programs, and onsite plant inspection are all needs associated with this strategy. Organizational and Institutional Attributes Organizational, In general, it is likely that the implementation of several types of actions that are Institutional and included in this strategy will require the issuance of new policy for one or more Policy Issues agencies within the jurisdiction. Accelerated Construction: Since these forms of design and construction are often quite different from standard procedures, special procedures may need to be developed for each method. Coordination meetings among all of the different stakeholders affected by work zones (EMS workers, police officers, DOT staff, utility operators, commuter service operators, school districts, local businesses, media, etc.) are important in devising strategies for each of the respective services to continue its operations as seamlessly as possible during construction. Better Asset Management: Usually this type of undertaking is done globally throughout an organization, which obviously requires tremendous resources and coordination. Developing a plan for asset management and communicating the plan throughout the organization are important aspects of this strategy. It is important for the respective agency to define its pavement preservation and rehabilitation priorities when establishing a pavement management system. For example, New Jersey recently went from a "worst first" approach to one that focuses on broad system preservation. Such a policy would be expected to reduce the impact of pavement repairs on network operation, including reduced work zone crashes. Issues Affecting Implementing improved construction and maintenance practices systemwide could Implementation Time take a significant amount of time, due primarily to the size of the roadway system. Training of agency personnel could also require significant implementation time, depending on the number of people who need to be trained and the uniqueness of the practices being implemented. Accelerated Construction: Individual construction techniques that will accelerate work may involve only a short period of time to research and approve. Encouraging the construction industry to embrace the concept of accelerated construction so that accelerated construction becomes common across all agencies, contractors, and projects will take time. The amount of time may vary from contractor to contractor or from region to region and may be affected by traditional practices and economic factors. Better Asset Management: Inventorying assets requires significant time, and the limited resources available will further lengthen implementation time. In any given organization's jurisdiction, there exists a large area of pavement to be managed. V-10

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES EXHIBIT V-2 (Continued) Strategy Attributes for Improving Maintenance and Construction Practices (P) Attribute Description To effectively monitor and maintain the entire network will typically require significant time and resources. This is also true for the large number of structures under an agency's jurisdiction. Costs Involved Establishment of programs and procedures to implement improved maintenance and construction practices may involve significant agency resources. The need for training and the size of the roadway system can also increase costs. Cost elements may also include capital investment in new equipment and associated development costs. Accelerated Construction: Costs of materials and/or labor may be greater for accelerated techniques, but greater initial costs of materials can often be justified using life cycle cost analysis. Several state DOTs, including New York and Ohio, use life cycle costs to evaluate benefits of accelerated construction practices. Significant risks are often at stake for the agency, the contractor, and/or the designer under most accelerated methods of construction. These risks are often time sensitive and come in the form of monetary disincentives for late completion, for failure to meet specifications, and so forth. In the case of payments for early completion, the responsible public agency may have to fund these payments, but benefits to the traveling public and perhaps to the agency (in the form of reduced time during which the agency will have to operate a facility under special procedures) may offset the associated cost. A contractor may also experience increased fixed costs because of the need to upgrade equipment. The contractor may also need to expend resources to retrain employees. Better Asset Management: Depending on the amount of existing asset data available, significant resources may be required to fully develop a database that includes all data necessary for a complete program. Training and Other Most individual aspects of this strategy involve introduction of new methods and Personnel Needs procedures. Therefore, it is likely that a large portion of the personnel involved in these aspects of the agency's or contractor's operations will need training. However, this strategy will likely apply to a limited number of a given agency's projects, so the overall training need not be great. Software programs may be worthwhile investments to assist staff in developing treatment plans for pavement maintenance, rehabilitation, and/or reconstruction. One example is the Strategic Analysis of Pavement Evaluation and Repair (SAPER) software (Liu et al., 2004). The FHWA Office of Asset Management offers a training course to help improve skills in economic analysis and pavement and bridge asset management (see http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/infrastructure/asstmgmt/training.htm). Legislative Needs None identified. Other Key Attributes Compatibility of This strategy is broad and, as a result, compatible with many other strategies, Different Strategies particularly Strategies 19.1 A2, A3, A4, and A5. V-11

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES Key References Anderson, S.D., and G.L. Ullman, NCHRP Synthesis 293: Reducing and Mitigating Impacts of Lane Occupancy During Constructions and Maintenance. Transportation Research Board, 2000. http://trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=1886. Anderson, S.D., G.L. Ullman, and B.C. Blaschke, "Process for Selecting Strategies for Rehabilitation of Rigid Pavements Under High Traffic Volumes." Transportation Research Record 1861, Transportation Research Board, 2003. Byrd, L.G., "Service Life and Life of Service: The Maintenance Commitments." Transportation Research Record 1650, Transportation Research Board, 1998. Colorado DOT. Transportation Expansion Project (T-Rex). http://www.trexproject.com/. Federal Highway Administration, Accelerated Construction. FHWA-HRT-04-067. 2004. Federal Highway Administration, Accelerated Construction Technology Transfer. FHWA-IF-04- 003. 2004. http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/construction/accelerated/if04003.htm. Lamptey, G., S. Labi, and K.C. Sinha, "Development of Alternative Rehabilitation and Maintenance Strategies for Pavement Management." Paper No. 04-4654. Transportation Research Board, Compendium of Papers CD-ROM, Washington, D.C. 2004. Jackson, H., A. Eisdorfer, S. Zaghloul, R. Sauber, and A. Jumikis, "Integration of Preventive Maintenance into the NJDOT Pavement Management System." Paper No. 04-3972. Transportation Research Board, Compendium of Papers CD-ROM, Washington, D.C. 2004. Larson, C.D., and O. Skrypczuk, "Comprehensive Data Collection Supporting Asset Management at Virginia DOT." Paper No. 04-4675. Transportation Research Board, Compendium of Papers CD-ROM, Washington, D.C. 2004. Li and Sinha, "A Methodology for Multicriteria Decision-Making in Highway Asset Management." Transportation Research Record 1885, Transportation Research Board, 2004. Liu, J., D.G. Zollinger, S.D. Tayabji, and K.D. Smith, "SAPER: Tool for Selecting Concrete Pavement Repair and Rehabilitation Treatments." Paper No. 04-2398. Transportation Research Board, Compendium of Papers CD-ROM, Washington, D.C. 2004. Merritt, D., B.F. McCullough, and N.H. Burns, "Feasibility of Using Precast Concrete Panels to Expedite Construction of Portland Cement Concrete Pavement." Transportation Research Record 1761, Transportation Research Board, 2001. Missouri DOT, Highways for LIFE. Undated. http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/modiv/safety.htm. Nazarian, S., D. Yuan, and A. Medichetti, "Optimizing Opening of Portland Cement Concrete Pavements Using Integrated Maturity and Nondestructive Tests." Transportation Research Record 1861, Transportation Research Board, 2003. Robinson, M., E. Raynault, S. Rennie, and E.A. Sheldahl, "Performance-Based Contract Maintenance in the District of Columbia--Results and Lessons Learned at the Half-Way Point." Paper No. 04-4340. Transportation Research Board, Compendium of Papers CD- ROM, Washington, D.C. 2004. V-12

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES South Carolina DOT. Accelerated Construction. Undated. http://www.dot.state.sc.us/doing/acceleratedselect.html. Washington DOT, Asset Management: Pavement Assessment. http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/publications/folio/PavementAssessment.pdf. Wei, C., and S. Tighe, "Development of Preventive Maintenance Decision Trees Based on Cost Effectiveness Analysis: An Ontario Case Study." Transportation Research Record 1866, Transportation Research Board, 2004. Information on Current Knowledge Regarding Agencies or Organizations That Are Implementing This Strategy Additional information on topics related to this strategy can be found on the following FHWA websites: Office of Construction and Maintenance, "Accelerated Construction Technology Transfer": http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/construction/accelerated/index.htm. Office of Bridge Technology (including an Accelerated Bridge Construction Technology page): http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/bridge/index.htm. Office of Pavement: http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/pavement/index.cfm. Washington State DOT (WSDOT) has been rating its statewide pavement condition since 1969. According to FHWA, "WSDOT has an efficient data collection program using laser technology that provides high quality measurements for all road segments" (http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/publications/folio/PavementAssessment.pdf). Pavements in Washington are rated on pavement structural condition, rutting, and roughness. WSDOT uses a combination of pavement ratings to prioritize pavement rehabilitation needs based on lowest life cycle cost management. This management philosophy attempts to time rehabilitation efforts to avoid rehabilitation that is either too early or too late. 19.1 A2--Utilize Full-Time Roadway Closure for Construction Operations (T) General Description An agency may find that full closure of a roadway during construction operations may be the best option for performing the work in a safe and efficient manner. Full closure eliminates the potential for crashes in a work zone, especially crashes involving both vehicles and workers. By completely closing the roadway to traffic, the duration of the construction can be reduced, since the contractor does not need to interact with traffic and will likely have access to a larger work space. Both avoiding interaction with the traffic and having access to larger workspace will very likely increase the productivity of the contractor and reduce the duration of construction. Additional reasons for considering full-time closure include potential to achieve a higher quality product, increased productivity (due to less interruption from traffic), and a need to complete a project before an upcoming event or season. V-13

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES Full-time closure may be considered for relatively small projects with relatively short construction times, but also for major construction efforts such as what might occur on urban Interstate projects. One significant example of the latter is I-74 through downtown Peoria, Illinois. As of April 2005, a 1.5-mile segment of I-74 will be completely closed by the Illinois DOT to through traffic to enable the segment's complete reconstruction within one construction season. See http://www.upgrade74.com/index.php. Significant requirements relating to the implementation of full-time closure and need to be met, beginning with the early planning stages of a construction project: Detour routes should be evaluated when road closure is being considered to determine if the alternative routes can handle traffic sufficiently, both from a capacity standpoint and from a safety perspective. There must be close coordination with property and business owners, as well as PI&E campaigns, to provide notice of the closure and alternative routes. Consider the effects of the road closure program on not just business owners, residents, and through travelers, but also other road users, such as school buses, transit systems, and emergency responders. Alternative routes that are relatively convenient for motorized road users may be inconvenient, difficult to use, or less safe for pedestrians and bicyclists. Early consideration of those impacted by full closure of a roadway can lessen the impact on all road users, as well as improve public relations throughout the construction. In addition to long-term, full road closure, where traffic in either or both directions is detoured for the duration of the construction or maintenance activity, other methods for implementing road closure include: EXHIBIT V-3 Full Road Closure V-14

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES Weekend closures Nighttime or off-peak closures Closure of the roadway to all but local traffic Short-term ramp closure Two-lane, two-way operations while one side of a multilane highway is closed Half closure of an interchange Closure of the mainline at a diamond interchange and routing of through traffic on the ramps EXHIBIT V-4 Strategy Attributes for Utilizing Full-Time Roadway Closure for Construction Operations (T) Attribute Description Technical Attributes Target This strategy targets all types of work zone crashes by allowing for an elimination of or reduction in traffic through the work zone. All of the traffic (or all except local traffic) during the period when the work is active is detoured to alternative routes. Because traffic is reduced or eliminated within the work zone, crashes involving through travelers and workers are eliminated. This strategy applies to many types of construction and maintenance activities and can be implemented on either a long-term basis or a short-term basis. Although some types of projects, such as complete bridge replacement, usually require long-term closure to traffic, the decision of whether and when to close a roadway to traffic is usually based on other factors, such as availability of alternative routes and the need to maintain access to abutting properties and businesses within the work zone. Expected Effectiveness A reduction in crashes would be expected in the work zones due to the decreased or eliminated volume in the work zones, but it would be difficult to determine whether an increase in crashes on a detour route is attributable to detoured traffic. Agencies that have implemented full road closure have cited improvements in safety, though this is difficult to measure. Workers report that eliminating their exposure to traffic increases the safety of the work zone, as well as their productivity (FHWA, 2003). Experience does not indicate that crashes increase significantly systemwide when full closure is used. Significant reductions in project duration can be achieved with full road closure (70- to 85-percent reductions were reported by the FHWA, 2003), which translates into less traffic exposure. Keys to Success Adequate alternative routes, public outreach programs, and provision of access to residences and businesses are keys to the successful implementation of full road closure. Alternative routes that can serve the needs of detoured travelers are crucial to the safety and mobility of the traveling public and the reduction of impacts on them. It is critical that the effect of increased volumes on detour routes be evaluated to determine what the best detour is and whether traffic signal timing or other operational, signing, design, or roadside features along the detour should be modified. An analysis of traffic on the network should be performed to determine the effect that full closure will have, as well as to determine the appropriate steps to take during closure to reduce the impact of the diverted traffic (such as re-timing of signals on the alternative routes). The FHWA' QuickZone software program aids in the estimation of work zone delay (see http://www.tfhrc.gov/its/quickzon.htm). V-15

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES EXHIBIT V-4 (Continued) Strategy Attributes for Utilizing Full-Time Roadway Closure for Construction Operations (T) Attribute Description Road users should be encouraged to consider public transportation alternatives on detour routes, where available. Arranging special provisions or incentives for the traveling public to use public transportation can have a marked effect on highway operations. In addition, demand management techniques can be considered so that alternative highway routes are not overloaded. It may be possible to encourage trips normally made during peak periods through the corridor to be made at off-peak times, either by choice of the traveler or in conjunction with participation of large employers in the affected area. Refer to Strategy 19.1 A5 for additional discussion of demand management strategies. A traffic management plan that includes adequate signing to warn travelers of the closure and inform them of the alternative routes is also a key element. Though state agencies are generally not allowed to designate nonstate roadways as alternative routes without agreements with the local agencies with jurisdiction over the nonstate roadways, diverted traffic will still find its way to these other roadways. Thus, working with city, county, or other local officials may be an important element in planning a successful full road closure. The effect of full closure on the roadway network may depend to some extent on the duration of the project. For short-term projects where the road is closed during off- peak times (such as intermittent night or weekend closures), the traffic may be able to be easily accommodated on alternative routes if travelers are given enough advanced notice of the closure. For long-term closures where peak traffic will be affected, it may take more time for traffic to be redistributed on the network and among the alternative modes as road users find new commuting routes. Two of the projects profiled in the FHWA document Full Road Closure for Work Zone Operations (2003) reported that within 2 weeks after the full-closure operation began, traffic redistributed itself and the increased load on the network was balanced. The time to reach a new equilibrium would be expected to vary from project to project based on specific conditions. PI&E campaigns have played a significant role in successful full-closure projects. Elements of a successful PI&E campaign include: Well-distributed closure announcements well in advance of and during construction Announcement of the scheduled reopening Route alternatives Description of the benefits achieved by using full closure Careful coordination with impacted residents and business owners In addition, real-time communication of traffic conditions in and approaching the work zone and on alternative routes is important. This can be provided through variable message signs, websites, telephone information lines, and radio traffic messages. Explanation of the reduced duration of the project and other benefits of full closure help increase driver understanding and patience and lead to increased public satisfaction, especially in cases where the public may initially perceive that the roadway will be closed for too long. Potential Difficulties Road closure should be scheduled around events that are expected to generate increased traffic or to significantly affect traffic flow in other ways. Festivals, sporting, or other entertainment events that draw traffic into a region or a specific site may be a factor in determining whether to use full closure. Long-term construction projects may need to be sequenced so as to allow temporary reopening of the roadway during special events. V-16

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES EXHIBIT V-7 (Continued) Strategy Attributes for Using Nighttime Road Work (P) Attribute Description Law enforcement services and public awareness activities are also elements of night construction that should be addressed during the planning stage. Certain tasks can be performed at night without any negative effects on quality and/or productivity, such as deck pouring, rock excavation, asphalt paving, and traffic control. Rough grading can easily be performed at night, but final grading is more difficult. Traffic control should be used to minimize the risk to the travelers and workers. Visibility and smooth traffic flow are two key issues in the determination of appropriate traffic control. Enforcement of the work zone traffic control and speed limits may be needed to help ensure that traffic operates smoothly. This enforcement may be the most successful method for slowing traffic and increasing driver attention to work zone signing and safety. Potential Difficulties NCHRP Report 475 discusses factors that impact nighttime work and the potential difficulties that nighttime work presents: Traffic queues may still occur even if volumes are lower. There is potential for a reduced safety experience (specifically, more rear-end crashes) if drivers do not expect to encounter queues. In this situation, daytime work or full closure may be more appropriate options. There is a potential for a reduction in productivity due to difficulty communicating with supervisors and technical support staff during nighttime hours as well as the longer times needed to set up and take down traffic control devices and lighting. These concerns should be addressed during the planning stages. This productivity loss may be offset by an increase in productivity due to longer work shifts and less disruption from traffic. Additional traffic control, lighting, material, equipment repair, and worker pay costs will increase construction costs, but these may be offset by an increase in productivity and decrease in road user delay costs. The cost of accidents may be higher or lower due to performing work at night. Individual projects will have conditions (especially traffic) that contribute to an increase or decrease in the risk of work-zone-related crashes. Impacts on businesses would be expected to be less during night work than during day work due to the typical decrease in business activity at night. At night, there is more likely to be a higher incidence of fatigued or impaired drivers and pedestrians. Traffic control can be enhanced to help account for reduced alertness. Sleep patterns of workers are disrupted, and this may have an adverse effect on safety and productivity on the project as well as in the workers' family and social lives. Night work may have a significant effect on the community in which it is performed. There is a potential for complaints about noise, light, and vibration from work zones from people living nearby the work zone. Work activities may need to be suspended while community events are being held. In some jurisdictions, use of the audible back-up alarms on warnings for work equipment is prohibited at night, which could present worker safety concerns. The availability of materials for delivery at night may be limited, as may be the availability of people to perform equipment repairs and to provide other support services. V-30

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES EXHIBIT V-7 (Continued) Strategy Attributes for Using Nighttime Road Work (P) Attribute Description Appropriate Measures A key process measure is the number of projects on which night work is used, as well and Data as documentation of how the key elements of good nighttime operations were implemented. Key safety effectiveness measures include crash frequency and severity, by type of crash. It is important to consider crashes related to the presence of the work zone, especially those occurring at night, as well as crashes related to traffic diversion to an alternative route. These crashes might include the relative number of congestion- related crashes on the detour routes, such as rear-end crashes, compared with what would have been expected had work occurred during the day. Crash frequency and severity data are needed to evaluate the construction operation for safety effectiveness. Traffic volume data are needed to represent exposure, including changes in volumes on alternative routes during the construction. Delay data are needed to determine the operational impacts of the project on traffic flow. Citations in the work zone may be an appropriate surrogate measure of safety. Other key non-safety-effectiveness measures include the proportion of projects with on-time completion that can be credited to night work. Associated Needs PI&E campaigns informing travelers of night work will be needed in order to improve driver awareness of the work zone and potential for queues. PI&E campaigns, using a variety of media outlets, can help address concerns that local residents may have with the potential for disruptions from noise, light, and vibrations. Information regarding alternative routes should also be conveyed during PI&E campaigns. Visible enforcement of traffic laws in work zones will contribute to safety of a night work zone, as well as daytime construction activities. Organizational and Institutional Attributes Organizational, A standard procedure is desirable for comparing the impacts of night work against Institutional and those of day work, including impacts on safety and traffic. NCHRP Report 475 Policy Issues provides a procedure for comparing nighttime and daytime alternatives. Nighttime operations may require the use of law enforcement and other personnel at times and in numbers not normally scheduled. Therefore, it will be important to involve these and similar stakeholders as early as possible in the planning process. Issues Affecting Agencies may need to develop specifications for performing night work if they have Implementation Time not already done so. Implementation time for night construction projects may be longer for jurisdictions not familiar with performing construction at night than for jurisdictions that are. PI&E campaigns may need to be more extensive to alert drivers to the plans for nighttime operations, and development of agency staffing plans may also initially take more time. Costs Involved While actual construction costs, such as delivery of materials and labor, will be higher for night work, the increase can be offset by reduced road user costs and increased overall productivity on the project (Bryden and Mace, NCHRP Report 475). However, while increased worker productivity will lessen the impact of the increased material and labor costs, the material and labor costs will be covered by a different funding source than that which covers road user costs and productivity. V-31

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES EXHIBIT V-7 (Continued) Strategy Attributes for Using Nighttime Road Work (P) Attribute Description Training and Other Training in nighttime safety concerns and practices may be needed for workers who Personnel Needs have not had such training or who have not had such training recently. Planners, designers, and field staff of both the highway agencies and the contractor involved are appropriate participants in training for nighttime work zone safety. Periodic briefing sessions may be appropriate at times throughout the project, as well. NCHRP has developed a training program on nighttime construction to supplement NCHRP Report 475 and NCHRP Report 476 (additional details are available in NCHRP Research Results Digest 293, http://trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=4474). Legislative Needs Existing noise and other restrictions on night work will need to be addressed. Other Key Attributes Compatibility of This strategy is compatible with others discussed in this guide, especially 19.1 B2 and Different Strategies B3, which discuss visibility of traffic control devices, workers, and work vehicles, and D1 and E1, which discuss law enforcement and public awareness. Key References American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO). Primer on Contracting for the Twenty-First Century. Fourth Edition. Washington, D.C. 2001. http://www.transportation.org/download/ContractPrimer.pdf . Bryden, J.E., and D. Mace, NCHRP Report 475: A Procedure for Assessing and Planning Nighttime Highway Construction and Maintenance. Transportation Research Board. Washington, D.C. 2002. http://trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=723. Bryden, J.E., and D. Mace, NCHRP Report 476: Guidelines for the Design and Operation of Nighttime Traffic Control for Highway Maintenance and Construction. Transportation Research Board. Washington, D.C. 2002. http://trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=1023. Cottrell, B.H., Improving Night Work Zone Traffic Control. Virginia Transportation Research Council. VTRC-00-R8. 1999. http://www.virginiadot.org/vtrc/main/online_reports/pdf/ 00-r8.pdf. Ellis, R.D., Jr., S. Amos, and A. Kumar, NCHRP Report 498: Illumination Guidelines for Nighttime Highway Work. Transportation Research Board. Washington, D.C. 2003. http://trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=2316. Hancher, D.E., and T.R.B. Taylor, "Nighttime Construction Issues." Transportation Research Record 1761. Transportation Research Board. Washington, D.C. 2001. Kent, D.L., "Innovative Contracting Techniques That Consider Driver Impact: Use of A+B Bidding." Presented at Federal Highway Administration Making Work Zones Work Better Workshop series, 2003. http://ops.fhwa.dot.gov/wz/workshops/accessible/ Kent_MWZWB.htm. V-32

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES National Cooperative Highway Research Program, NCHRP Research Results Digest 216: Illumination Guidelines for Nighttime Road Work. Transportation Research Board. Washington, D.C. 1996. http://trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=3073. Park, S., K.D. Douglas, A.J. Griffith, and K.J. Hass, "Factors of Importance for Determining Daytime Versus Nighttime Operations in Oregon." Transportation Research Board 81st Annual Meeting. Washington, D.C. 2002. Ullman, G.L., "Traffic Safety Evaluation of Nighttime and Daytime Work Zones." NCHRP Project 17-30. Transportation Research Board. Ongoing, expected completion October 2006. (NCHRP, training program on nighttime construction to supplement Reports 475 and 476.) 19.1 A5--Use Demand Management Programs to Reduce Volumes through Work Zones (P) General Description Transportation demand management (TDM) programs are one part of a comprehensive traffic management approach aimed at improving safety and reducing delays in work zones. TDMs apply mostly to significant construction projects (involving major capacity reduction for an extended time period) in urban areas. The primary objective of TDMs is to reduce potential delay for all corridor uses by reducing vehicular volume through the work zone. A significant secondary benefit of effective programs is the reduction in vehicular exposure, which should translate into a reduction in work zone crashes. These programs encompass a wide range of trip reduction approaches and systems based on intelligent transportation systems (ITS) to control traffic, manage demand and operation, and provide information to the public. TDM programs can be utilized to enhance the safety of motorists and highway workers by reducing the number of trips through work zones and by providing drivers with up-to-date information. Employing TDM programs aimed at lessening peak-period traffic through a work zone is expected to have the greatest safety and operational benefit. It may also be desirable to design TDM programs that encourage long-haul trucks to use alternative routes that avoid work zones on major roads. A plan for outreach to the trucking industry would be a necessary component of this aspect of a TDM program. ITS technology is often used in conjunction with TDM programs and is often critical to the programs' success. While there is overlap between this strategy and the ITS programs discussed in Strategy 19.1 B1, this section focuses specifically on TDM as a traffic congestion and crash mitigation tool for use during road construction. TDM Programs A few TDM programs that can be used to reduce travel demand through work zones include: Carpooling: more than one person traveling in a car. Vanpooling: eight to 15 people traveling in a van. Transit: use of shuttles, buses, and rail. V-33

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES Toll subsidies: encourage diversion to toll facilities. Bicycling and walking. In addition, the following TDM strategies are intended to provide business employees who are impacted by a project with flexible work schedules to ultimately decrease transportation system demand, especially during peak commuting hours: Telecommuting: working from home or from a facility designed to accommodate remote working Variable work hours: shifting employee work schedules to avoid peak travel times Features of TDM programs that indirectly influence the success of the programs (as identified by the Colorado DOT's Transportation Demand Management & Corridor Projects) include: Parking management: providing preferential parking at places of employment for carpoolers and vanpoolers, allowing nondrivers to "cash out" the value of the parking space provided by an employer, and charging for parking. Rideshare matching: a service that identifies people living and working near one another to offer either full-time or occasional commuting partners. Incentives and subsidies: reducing the cost of transit passes or vanpool fares or rewarding commuters with cash, prizes, time off, or recognition. Marketing and promotions: advertising these programs and offering promotional offers (such as reduced introductory fares) to encourage commuter participation. Guaranteed ride home: providing carpoolers, vanpoolers, or those utilizing alternative transportation modes with a ride home by taxi or rental car in case of an emergency or when working late. Value pricing: using market-based transportation strategies to enhance mobility options (e.g., parking pricing, and peak-hour tolls). Onsite amenities and TDM-friendly site design: designing facilities to support a wide variety of convenient transportation options. Benefits of TDM TDM strategies offer several advantages to roadwork projects, including: Accurate, up-to-date information on work zone conditions reduces congestion. Driver confusion resulting from lack of information is reduced. Less traffic is exposed to any hazards related to driving through the work zone. Because workers are exposed to fewer passing vehicles, they have a lower risk of being struck. Response time of emergency vehicles to crashes is reduced. Travelers are provided with up-to-date information on available travel routes, detours, and traffic incidents. V-34

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES Delays caused by congestion in work zones are reduced, which in turn reduces road user costs. Traffic control options are more feasible. The Wisconsin DOT has instituted a TDM program associated with the multiyear reconstruction of the Marquette Interchange in downtown Milwaukee. Elements of the program include a freeway bus transit program and extensive driver information, including a unique website offering up-to-date information on ramp closures, detours, and upcoming construction stages. See http://www.mchange.org/. Several conditions must be in place for TDM strategies to be considered advantageous within work zones: Alternative commuting options must exist and be publicized, such as transit, carpooling, vanpooling, bicycling, walking, and telecommuting. PI&E programs must be in place to inform travelers about alternatives, particularly alternatives related to ride share matching, marketing and promotions, and guaranteed rides home. Travel times for the alternative commuting modes must be competitive with travel times for single-occupancy vehicles. Travel alternatives must be convenient and comfortable for users. Incentives related to use of the alternatives may be necessary, particularly incentives related to travel cost advantages. This condition may be met through incentives and subsidies, value pricing, and/or parking management programs (CDOT, Transportation Demand Management & Corridor Projects, 2002; http://www.dot.state.co.us/ CommuterChoice/Files/TDM_Corridor_Project_Complete_File.pdf). The types of work zones that may be appropriate for TDM strategies include: Work zones located in densely populated areas that support a variety of transportation choices; Projects located in areas with an employment base large enough to impact travel demand by offering telecommuting, staggered work hours, flex-time, compressed work weeks, and so forth; High-volume roadways where congestion-related delays may be common or where detours will be used; Work zones that will be in place for a significant amount of time; and Long-term projects (because the system costs will be easier to justify). V-35

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES EXHIBIT V-8 Strategy Attributes for Using Demand Management Programs to Reduce Volumes through Work Zones (P) Attribute Description Technical Attributes Target Use of TDM programs should target all potential users of the road under work zone control. The strategy, therefore, should impact all types of work zone crashes by reducing traffic volumes, thereby reducing vehicle-vehicle and vehicle-worker conflicts. Expected Effectiveness According to the Colorado DOT's TDM Toolkit (2002), it is difficult to separate out the effectiveness of individual TDM strategies within a TDM program because individual strategies are not mutually exclusive or cumulative. As noted in the FHWA publication, Meeting the Customer's Needs for Mobility and Safety During Construction and Maintenance Operations (1998), few studies have been conducted on work zone crashes and work zone issues. Applying TDM to work zones is a relatively new idea, and there is little evidence to prove TDM's effectiveness for reducing work zone crashes. However, information from a limited number of work zones on which TDM was used suggests that traffic volumes were decreased. It is expected, therefore, that a reduction in volume through a work zone would reduce the crash experience of that work zone. Examples of TDM programs effective in reducing volumes are provided at the end of this strategy under the heading, "Information on Current Knowledge Regarding Agencies or Organizations That Are Implementing This Strategy." Keys to Success A detailed planning phase is critical to the successful implementation of a TDM plan for construction projects. Developing a TDM plan requires selecting the most appropriate strategies and obtaining a commitment from partners. As noted in Colorado DOT's TDM Toolkit (2002), development of TDM plans often includes the following steps and considerations. An operational plan should be developed to ensure that all factors involved in a TDM program have been considered and that appropriate resources and procedures are available. Additionally, a partnership should be formed with organizations and businesses in the community. Transit agencies should be approached to determine how existing transportation facilities and services may be utilized during construction and what additional transit services may be needed. Employers near the work zone should be contacted to provide traveler information and to develop transportation alternatives, such as transit, vanpooling, flexible work hours, and telecommuting. Additional partnerships with private transportation providers, schools, and neighboring communities may also be considered. Potential Difficulties Finding the most effective organizational "home" is one of the biggest hurdles to a TDM program. It will be difficult to get the attention and involvement of the variety of the desired agencies and other affected entities. Support from a high level in government in the affected area is important. If the project involves a lengthy period of time and several stages, it will be important to keep the stakeholders updated on a regular basis. V-36

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES EXHIBIT V-8 (Continued) Strategy Attributes for Using Demand Management Programs to Reduce Volumes through Work Zones (P) Attribute Description Appropriate Measures The Colorado DOT's TDM Toolkit (2002) and the Houston-Galveston Area Council's and Data Transportation Demand Management and Corridor Planning Guidebook (2003) both outline measures of TDM effectiveness. These measures include a wide range of quantitative and qualitative information, such as: Crashes in the work zone (compared with comparable projects); Traffic congestion in the work zone (measured by traffic volumes, hours of delay, or level of service); Public awareness of transportation or route alternatives; Public awareness of TDM incentives or transit pass programs; Number of vanpools operating in the corridor; and Number of transit passes sold at area employment sites. The TDM program should also include clearly stated, realistic goals established prior to implementation. As noted above, a likely goal would be to reduce traffic volumes through work zones. Initially, it is necessary to document baseline conditions. Future evaluations of TDM programs should include a comparison against baseline conditions to effectively measure results. Associated Needs ITS tools will be needed to provide information to travelers on a variety of transportation modes. The advanced warning of construction activities and delays can allow travelers to plan their trip to minimize the impact of a work zone on their commute. ITS tools also help travelers find the most efficient modes and routes of travel for their trips, and this help complements the TDM programs discussed in this strategy. PI&E campaigns that use a variety of media outlets are needed to reach a wide range of travelers to inform them of alternative mode choices and travel routes. The campaign should be focused in part on reaching large employment centers near the project. Part of this effort may involve creation of a project website, which will include a TDM section. Organizational and Institutional Attributes Organizational, As noted in the FHWA report, Mitigating Traffic Congestion (2004), the scope of the Institutional and TDM effort should be considered when determining the organizational home for a Policy Issues TDM program. Determining key staff or organizational responsibility for overseeing implementation and evaluation of TDM plans is key to the success of a program. The Colorado DOT's TDM Toolkit (2002) provides detailed information about developing an implementation plan for TDM programs. A variety of organizational options exist for implementing TDM plans, including the creation of a Transportation Management Association (TMA). TMAs are organizations created to be responsible for implementing commuter and TDM assistance programs within a given area. TMA activities typically include promoting various trip reduction strategies, as well as working with local transit providers to improve routing and services. Interagency agreements may be needed to deal with issues of joint use of personnel and handling of subsidies. Issues Affecting Developing and implementing a TDM program could take a year or two, as some Implementation Time aspects of the program may need to be bid into a specific project for a relatively short term. Development includes creating viable partnerships with stakeholders impacted by the project. Coordination with stakeholders (including transit agencies, employers, V-37

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES EXHIBIT V-8 (Continued) Strategy Attributes for Using Demand Management Programs to Reduce Volumes through Work Zones (P) Attribute Description private transportation providers, schools, neighborhood groups, and city and county governments) should continue throughout the project. How the TDM program will be organized and run will also impact implementation time. Lastly, the need for dissemination of information to the public about the closure and alternative routes and modes of transportation will add to the implementation time of a project if these activities are not planned at the same time as other planning activities occur. Costs Involved The issues that affect implementation time also affect costs involved with implementing and maintaining the strategies. There are also costs associated with specific TDM strategies, such as costs for improvements on alternative routes or provision of alternative transportation modes. Staff resources are needed to run and manage the program, and project-level staff involved with the construction project will need to provide project-specific information to the agency staff running the TDM program. Ongoing costs will also include the PI&E campaign. These costs can vary widely depending on the type of media distribution (e.g., television, radio, newspaper, and website), the intended length of the campaign (or the project), and the frequency with which the message is disseminated. The Colorado DOT's Draft 2030 Statewide Transportation Plan (2004) indicates that the costs of TDM programs may be reduced through federal assistance given to states to relieve congestion and reduce air pollution by promoting alternative modes. Two of the largest sources of revenue for TMAs are dues (34 percent) and grants (49 percent). By utilizing TDM strategies that make the most efficient use of existing transportation facilities, public- or private-sector employers can promote alternative modes, increase vehicle occupancy, reduce travel distances, and ease peak-hour congestion. The annual budget for TMAs ranges between $75,000 and $2 million. The Colorado DOT and associated agencies dedicated $3 million dollars to the TransOptions program, including transit and vanpool subsidies, money for community outreach and education, and money for maintaining a project website. The Springfield Interchange Project in Virginia included $28 million for a congestion management program, including provisions for fire and rescue equipment and staff, additional travel options for commuters, improved highway routes around the interchange, and increased capacity and regularity of park-and-ride and light rail alternatives. Another $6 million was spent to build and operate the nation's first retail information center in the Springfield Mall. This center was developed to meet the needs of people concerned about the impact of the project. Since 1999, more than 230,000 people have visited the center to obtain up-to-date construction information (FHWA, 2004). Training and Other Staff may benefit from training to learn about successful TDM programs associated Personnel Needs with other construction projects. Legislative Needs None identified. Other Key Attributes Compatibility of TDM-related strategies are discussed in other sections of this report. Strategy 19.1 B1 Different Strategies discusses ITS strategies to improve safety within work zones. Strategy 19.1 E1 discusses methods to disseminate work zone safety information to road users. The material in Strategies 19.1 B1 and 19.1 E1 should be reviewed in combination with TDM strategies discussed in this section. V-38

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES Key References Colorado DOT. Draft 2030 Statewide Transportation Plan --Transportation Demand Management (TDM) Technical Report. 2004. http://www.dot.state.co.us/StatewidePlanning/PlansStudies/ Docs/Transportation%20Demand%20Management%20Technical%20Report.pdf. Colorado DOT. TDM Toolkit. 2002. http://www.dot.state.co.us/CommuterChoice/ TDM/TDM.htm. Federal Highway Administration. Meeting the Customer's Needs for Mobility and Safety During Construction and Maintenance Operations. Office of Program Quality Coordination, HPQ-98-1. Washington, D.C. 1998. Federal Highway Administration. Mitigating Traffic Congestion--The Role of Demand-Side Strategies. Washington, D.C. 2004. http://ops.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/mitig_traf_cong/ index.htm. Houston-Galveston Area Council. Transportation Demand Management and Corridor Planning A Guidebook for Houston Area Planners, Engineers and Policy Makers. 2003. http://www.commutesolutions-hou.com/resources/TDM_and_Corridor_Planning.pdf. Information on Current Knowledge Regarding Agencies or Organizations That Are Implementing This Strategy Several examples of TDM programs for major reconstruction projects are described in Appendix 1. The FHWA report, Mitigating Traffic Congestion--The Role of Demand-Side Strategies (2004) reports that the Colorado DOT's T-REX project--a 5-year design-build project on I-25 and I- 225 to add 19 miles of light rail and improve 17 miles of highway--successfully implemented a TDM program, called TransOptions. This program offers mode choices, including transit and vanpools, and route choices. An audit of the project's first 2 years (2001 and 2002) showed that TDM strategies collectively reduced daily VMT by 74,800. The same FHWA report indicated that TDM strategies used to enhance mobility during reconstruction of U.S. Highway 101 in central California led to a reduction of approximately 300 cars per day from the highway, translating into approximately 8,000 fewer VMT. Average auto occupancy on the highway rose from 1.206 to 1.266. This program used increased commuter bus services, special vanpool promotions and subsidies, and carpool incentives. An evaluation of the program showed that the carpool incentives were the most cost-effective means among the three programs used for removing cars from the highway. As noted in Colorado DOT's TDM Toolkit (2002), development of TDM plans often includes the following steps and considerations: 1. Defining the problem and identifying potential solutions increases the understanding of existing services and programs and helps to identify TDM strategies that will enhance what is already in place. 2. Creating effective partnerships with public and private participants who are likely to be affected by a construction project will help to ensure the ultimate success of a TDM V-39

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES program. Testing possible TDM strategies to determine the likelihood of success might be done by interviewing employers and commuter focus groups. TransOptions, the TDM program created for the T-REX project in Colorado, is an example of a successful partnership between the Colorado DOT, Regional Transportation District, FHWA, and Federal Transit Administration. This program has assisted employers and commuters in dealing with challenges of traveling through work zones. 3. TDM strategies should be selected in conjunction with community partners. 4. Parties should be selected to be responsible for implementing, overseeing, and evaluating the TDM program. 5. Funding must be secured to implement the TDM program. Funding should be available for marketing and promotions, including incentives to reward people for their use of TDM options (e.g., cash, prizes, time-off, and recognition). 6. An evaluation plan should be developed that compares conditions prior to implementing a TDM program with conditions after implementing the program in order to effectively measure results. 19.1 A6--Design Future Work Zone Capacity into New or Reconstructed Highways (T) General Description Anticipating future work zone requirements and incorporating them into the planning and design process for new roadways (or roadways currently undergoing reconstruction) is one way to ensure that space and operational needs of future work zone operations are accommodated, thereby minimizing the conflict between traffic and future maintenance activities. Adequate planning can address the needs of a range of work zone operations, from short-term work zones, such as traffic barrier repair and pothole patching, to major repaving and reconstruction work. Mobility and safety in work zones are linked, and providing optimum conditions for work zone operations can potentially reduce traffic queues approaching a work zone as well as reduce work-zone-related crashes. Ensuring that future work zone operations can be performed effectively is one way to reduce the duration and impact of future work zone operations. There are several ways to be certain that future work zone operations are considered early in the project process: Make work zone considerations an explicit tradeoff in decision making for both new construction and reconstruction projects. Many competing goals and required tradeoffs are part of a roadway project. Explicitly including work zones as part of the evaluation process will ensure that the needs of future maintenance and construction activities are evaluated against other project drivers and issues. Incorporate work zone needs into agency design policies and processes. For example, if minimum shoulder widths are required to provide for traffic or pedestrian needs in work zones, there should be additional scrutiny when lesser values are proposed on a project. Wisconsin DOT builds wider shoulders on Interstate bridges to allow room for future construction and maintenance needs. When South Carolina DOT constructed the V-40