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SECTION I--SUMMARY Fatal work zone crashes occurred most often during the summer months. Almost 30 percent of fatal work zone crashes occurred on Interstate roadways. Almost 60 percent of fatal work zone crashes occurred on roads with a posted speed limit of 55 mph or greater. Single-vehicle crashes accounted for over half of all fatal work zone crashes. Rear-end fatal crashes were 25 times more common in work zones relative to all fatal crashes. Ten percent of work zone fatalities were pedestrians and bicyclists. Heavy trucks were involved in more than 20 percent of fatal work zone crashes. Alcohol was involved in almost 40 percent of fatal work zone crashes. In addition to the trends identified in FARS, an American Road and Transportation Builders Association (ARTBA) review of federal data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics indicates that roadway construction workers are killed at a rate nearly three times higher than other construction workers and eight times higher than general industry workers. Objectives of the Emphasis Area The work zone safety experiences described above are the basis for the inclusion of the strategies discussed in Section V. The strategies are grouped by objective (i.e., safety concern). The objectives for improving work zone safety are explained below. Exhibit I-3 lists the objectives and the related strategies discussed in this guide. The strategies span the full range of engineering, enforcement, and education: 19.1 A Reduce the number, duration, and impact of work zones--Reducing the exposure of travelers to work zones and of workers to traffic will decrease the opportunities for crashes to occur. This exposure can be reduced by using maintenance and construction practices that increase pavement and bridge service life, accelerating construction and maintenance activities when they are needed, scheduling highway work to avoid periods of high traffic volumes, and providing adequate space for future road work in new project development. 19.1 B Improve work zone traffic control devices--Since work zones often present a higher driver-information and vehicular-control workload than nonwork areas present, the devices used to convey information to drivers and to alert them to the presence of workers and potential roadway hazards need to be visible and to have a clear and consistent meaning. Visibility of workers (especially flaggers) and their vehicles are necessary for the protection of both workers and highway users. 19.1 C Improve work zone design practices--Addressing safety for highway users and workers in the planning stages of a project can reduce the potential for crashes related to the work zone. Establishing work zone design guidance, including providing consistent design features across a jurisdiction, provides highway users with an environment that better meets their expectations. Positive separation between the traffic space and the work space can help reduce potential for conflicts between road users and/or workers. Consideration of all road users in the design of work zones can help improve safety for all users by providing cues to and accommodation of both motorized vehicles and nonmotorized travelers. I-3

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SECTION I--SUMMARY 19.1 D Improve driver compliance with work zone traffic controls--Many crashes are caused or aggravated by drivers' noncompliance with traffic control devices or traffic laws in work zones. Enforcement campaigns (conventional or automated) have the potential to reduce undesirable driver behavior and improve safety in work zones. Signs that convey credible messages regarding speed limits or presence of workers contribute to driver compliance with traffic laws. 19.1 E Increase knowledge and awareness of work zones--Training of highway users, designers, and workers can improve how work zones are designed, set up, and used. Public information and education campaigns can help improve driver skills in guiding vehicles through work zones. Training programs for agency staff and workers can help ensure that traffic control devices designed and set up in work zones are appropriate and provide positive guidance, rather than create additional clutter and driver confusion. 19.1 F Develop procedures to effectively manage work zones--Work zone management practices, such as crash data system improvements, safety awards, interagency coordination, and inspections, can help bring about an improvement in work zone safety at an agency level. EXHIBIT I-3 Emphasis Area Objectives and Strategies Objectives Strategies 19.1 A Reduce the number, 19.1 A1 Improve maintenance and construction practices (P) duration, and impact of work zones 19.1 A2 Utilize full-time roadway closure for construction operations (T) 19.1 A3 Utilize time-related contract provisions (P) 19.1 A4 Use nighttime road work (P) 19.1 A5 Use demand management programs to reduce volumes through work zones (P) 19.1 A6 Design future work zone capacity into new or reconstructed highways (T) 19.1 B Improve work zone 19.1 B1 Implement ITS strategies to improve safety (E) traffic control devices 19.1 B2 Improve visibility of work zone traffic control devices (T) 19.1 B3 Improve visibility of work zone personnel and vehicles (varies) 19.1 B4 Reduce flaggers' exposure to traffic (T) 19.1 C Improve work zone 19.1 C1 Establish work zone design guidance (T) design practices 19.1 C2 Implement measures to reduce work space intrusions (and limit consequences of intrusions) (T) 19.1 C3 Improve work zone safety for pedestrians, bicyclists, motorcyclists, and heavy-truck drivers (T) I-4

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SECTION I--SUMMARY EXHIBIT I-3 (Continued) Emphasis Area Objectives and Strategies Objectives Strategies 19.1 D Improve driver 19.1 D1 Enhance enforcement of traffic laws in work zones (T) compliance with work zone traffic controls 19.1 D2 Improve credibility of signs (E) 19.1 D3 Improve application of increased driver penalties in work zones (T) 19.1 E Increase knowledge 19.1 E1 Disseminate work zone safety information to road users (T) and awareness of work zones 19.1 E2 Provide work zone training programs and manuals for designers and field staff (T) 19.1 F Develop procedures to 19.1 F1 Develop or enhance agency-level work zone crash data systems (T) effectively manage work zones 19.1 F2 Improve coordination, planning, and scheduling of work activities (T) 19.1 F3 Use incentives to create and operate safer work zones (T) 19.1 F4 Implement work zone quality assurance procedures (i.e., safety inspections or audits) (T) (P) = proven; (T) = tried; and (E) = experimental. A detailed explanation of (P), (T), and (E) appears in Section V. Several strategies have substrategies with different ratings. I-5