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VOLUME 17 NATIONAL NCHRP REPORT 500 COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Guidance for Implementation of the AASHTO Strategic Highway Safety Plan Volume 17: A Guide for Reducing Work Zone Collisions

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TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 2005 (Membership as of November 2005) OFFICERS Chair: John R. Njord, Executive Director, Utah DOT Vice Chair: Michael D. Meyer, Professor, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology Executive Director: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS MICHAEL W. BEHRENS, Executive Director, Texas DOT ALLEN D. BIEHLER, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT LARRY L. BROWN, SR., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT DEBORAH H. BUTLER, Vice President, Customer Service, Norfolk Southern Corporation and Subsidiaries, Atlanta, GA ANNE P. CANBY, President, Surface Transportation Policy Project, Washington, DC JOHN L. CRAIG, Director, Nebraska Department of Roads DOUGLAS G. DUNCAN, President and CEO, FedEx Freight, Memphis, TN NICHOLAS J. GARBER, Professor of Civil Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville ANGELA GITTENS, Vice President, Airport Business Services, HNTB Corporation, Miami, FL GENEVIEVE GIULIANO, Director, Metrans Transportation Center, and Professor, School of Policy, Planning, and Development, USC, Los Angeles BERNARD S. GROSECLOSE, JR., President and CEO, South Carolina State Ports Authority SUSAN HANSON, Landry University Professor of Geography, Graduate School of Geography, Clark University JAMES R. HERTWIG, President, CSX Intermodal, Jacksonville, FL GLORIA JEAN JEFF, Director, Michigan DOT ADIB K. KANAFANI, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley HERBERT S. LEVINSON, Principal, Herbert S. Levinson Transportation Consultant, New Haven, CT SUE MCNEIL, Professor, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark MICHAEL R. MORRIS, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments CAROL A. MURRAY, Commissioner, New Hampshire DOT MICHAEL S. TOWNES, President and CEO, Hampton Roads Transit, Hampton, VA C. MICHAEL WALTON, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin LINDA S. WATSON, Executive Director, LYNX--Central Florida Regional Transportation Authority MARION C. BLAKEY, Federal Aviation Administrator, U.S.DOT (ex officio) JOSEPH H. BOARDMAN, Federal Railroad Administrator, U.S.DOT (ex officio) REBECCA M. BREWSTER, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA (ex officio) GEORGE BUGLIARELLO, Chancellor, Polytechnic University, and Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering (ex officio) J. RICHARD CAPKA, Acting Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT (ex officio) THOMAS H. COLLINS (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard (ex officio) JAMES J. EBERHARDT, Chief Scientist, Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies, U.S. Department of Energy (ex officio) JACQUELINE GLASSMAN, Deputy Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT (ex officio) EDWARD R. HAMBERGER, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads (ex officio) DAVID B. HORNER, Acting Deputy Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT (ex officio) JOHN C. HORSLEY, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (ex officio) JOHN E. JAMIAN, Acting Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT (ex officio) EDWARD JOHNSON, Director, Applied Science Directorate, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (ex officio) ASHOK G. KAVEESHWAR, Research and Innovative Technology Administrator, U.S.DOT (ex officio) BRIGHAM MCCOWN, Deputy Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S.DOT (ex officio) WILLIAM W. MILLAR, President, American Public Transportation Association (ex officio) SUZANNE RUDZINSKI, Director, Transportation and Regional Programs, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (ex officio) ANNETTE M. SANDBERG, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT (ex officio) JEFFREY N. SHANE, Under Secretary for Policy, U.S.DOT (ex officio) CARL A. STROCK (Maj. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (ex officio) NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Transportation Research Board Executive Committee Subcommittee for NCHRP JOHN R. NJORD, Utah DOT (Chair) MICHAEL D. MEYER, Georgia Institute of Technology J. RICHARD CAPKA, Federal Highway Administration ROBERT E. SKINNER, JR., Transportation Research Board JOHN C. HORSLEY, American Association of State Highway MICHAEL S. TOWNES, Hampton Roads Transit, Hampton, VA and Transportation Officials C. MICHAEL WALTON, University of Texas, Austin

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM NCHRP REPORT 500 Guidance for Implementation of the AASHTO Strategic Highway Safety Plan Volume 17: A Guide for Reducing Work Zone Collisions NICHOLAS D. ANTONUCCI KELLY K. HARDY CH2M HILL Herndon, VA JAMES E. BRYDEN Highway Safety Engineer Delmar, NY TIMOTHY R. NEUMAN CH2M HILL Chicago, IL RONALD PFEFER Zikhron Yaacov, Israel KEVIN SLACK CH2M HILL Herndon, VA S UBJECT A REAS Safety and Human Performance Research Sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in Cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2005 www.TRB.org

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH NCHRP REPORT 500: Volume 17 PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed research provides the most effective Project G17-18(3) approach to the solution of many problems facing highway administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local ISSN 0077-5614 interest and can best be studied by highway departments ISBN 0-309-08847-X individually or in cooperation with their state universities and Library of Congress Control Number 2005937466 others. However, the accelerating growth of highway transportation develops increasingly complex problems of wide interest to 2005 Transportation Research Board highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. Price $28.00 In recognition of these needs, the highway administrators of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials initiated in 1962 an objective national highway research program employing modern scientific techniques. This program is supported on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of the Association and it receives the full cooperation and support of the Federal Highway Administration, United States NOTICE Department of Transportation. The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National Cooperative The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies Highway Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the was requested by the Association to administer the research approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such approval program because of the Board's recognized objectivity and reflects the Governing Board's judgment that the program concerned is of national understanding of modern research practices. The Board is uniquely importance and appropriate with respect to both the purposes and resources of the suited for this purpose as it maintains an extensive committee National Research Council. structure from which authorities on any highway transportation The members of the technical committee selected to monitor this project and to review subject may be drawn; it possesses avenues of communications and this report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due cooperation with federal, state and local governmental agencies, consideration for the balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and universities, and industry; its relationship to the National Research conclusions expressed or implied are those of the research agency that performed the Council is an insurance of objectivity; it maintains a full-time research, and, while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical committee, research correlation staff of specialists in highway transportation they are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National matters to bring the findings of research directly to those who are in Research Council, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation a position to use them. Officials, or the Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. The program is developed on the basis of research needs Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical committee identified by chief administrators of the highway and transportation according to procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research departments and by committees of AASHTO. Each year, specific Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research areas of research needs to be included in the program are proposed Council. to the National Research Council and the Board by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. Research projects to fulfill these needs are defined by the Board, and qualified research agencies are selected from those that have submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Research Council and the Transportation Research Board. Published reports of the The needs for highway research are many, and the National NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Cooperative Highway Research Program can make significant contributions to the solution of highway transportation problems of are available from: mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, Transportation Research Board however, is intended to complement rather than to substitute for or Business Office duplicate other highway research programs. 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: Note: The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, the Federal Highway Administration, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, and the individual http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore states participating in the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of this report. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished schol- ars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and techni- cal matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Acad- emy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achieve- ments of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Acad- emy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both the Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. William A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is a division of the National Research Council, which serves the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering. The Board's mission is to promote innovation and progress in transportation through research. In an objective and interdisciplinary setting, the Board facilitates the sharing of information on transportation practice and policy by researchers and practitioners; stimulates research and offers research management services that promote technical excellence; provides expert advice on transportation policy and programs; and disseminates research results broadly and encourages their implementation. The Board's varied activities annually engage more than 5,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS STAFF FOR NCHRP REPORT 500, VOLUME 17 ROBERT J. REILLY, Director, Cooperative Research Programs CRAWFORD F. JENCKS, NCHRP Manager CHARLES W. NIESSNER, Senior Program Officer EILEEN P. DELANEY, Director of Publications BETH HATCH, Editor NCHRP PROJECT G17-18(3) PANEL Field of Traffic--Area of Safety THOMAS E. BRYER, Camp Hill, PA (Chair) JASVINDERJIT "JESSE" BHULLAR, California DOT TROY COSTALES, Oregon DOT LEANNA DEPUE, Missouri DOT BARBARA HARSHA, Governors Highway Safety Association, Washington, DC BRUCE IBARGUEN, Maine DOT MARLENE MARKISON, NHTSA MARGARET "MEG" MOORE, Texas DOT KIM F. NYSTROM, Nystrom Consulting, Gold River, CA PETER F. "PETE" RUSCH, FHWA RUDY UMBS, FHWA THOMAS M. WELCH, Iowa DOT ANTHONY D. WYATT, North Carolina DOT JESSE BLATT, NHTSA Liaison RAY KRAMMES, FHWA Liaison KEN KOBETSKY, AASHTO Liaison RICHARD PAIN, TRB Liaison

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The goal of the AASHTO Strategic Highway Safety Plan is to reduce annual high- FOREWORD way fatalities to 1.0 fatality per 100 million vehicle-miles of travel. This goal can be By Charles W. Niessner achieved through the widespread application of low-cost, proven countermeasures that Staff Officer reduce the number of crashes on the nation's highways. This seventeenth volume of Transportation Research NCHRP Report 500: Guidance for Implementation of the AASHTO Strategic Highway Board Safety Plan provides strategies that can be employed to reduce work zone crashes. The report will be of particular interest to safety practitioners with responsibility for imple- menting programs to reduce injuries and fatalities on the highway system. In 1998, AASHTO approved its Strategic Highway Safety Plan, which was devel- oped by the AASHTO Standing Committee for Highway Traffic Safety with the assis- tance of the Federal Highway Administration, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, and the Transportation Research Board Committee on Transportation Safety Management. The plan includes strategies in 22 key emphasis areas that affect highway safety. The plan's goal is to reduce the annual number of highway deaths by 9,000 by 2008. Each of the 22 emphasis areas includes strategies and an outline of what is needed to implement each strategy. NCHRP Project 17-18(3) is developing a series of guides to assist state and local agencies in reducing injuries and fatalities in targeted areas. The guides correspond to the emphasis areas outlined in the AASHTO Strategic Highway Safety Plan. Each guide includes a brief introduction, a general description of the problem, the strate- gies/countermeasures to address the problem, and a model implementation process. This is the seventeenth volume of NCHRP Report 500: Guidance for Implemen- tation of the AASHTO Strategic Highway Safety Plan, a series in which relevant infor- mation is assembled into single concise volumes, each pertaining to specific types of highway crashes (e.g., run-off-the-road and head-on) or contributing factors (e.g., aggressive driving). An expanded version of each volume with additional reference material and links to other information sources is available on the AASHTO Web site at http://safety.transportation.org. Future volumes of the report will be published and linked to the Web site as they are completed. While each volume includes countermeasures for dealing with particular crash emphasis areas, NCHRP Report 501: Integrated Management Process to Reduce High- way Injuries and Fatalities Statewide provides an overall framework for coordinating a safety program. The integrated management process comprises the necessary steps for advancing from crash data to integrated action plans. The process includes method- ologies to aid the practitioner in problem identification, resource optimization, and per- formance measurements. Together, the management process and the guides provide a comprehensive set of tools for managing a coordinated highway safety program.

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Contents Acknowledgments I Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I-1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I-1 General Description of the Problem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I-1 Objectives of the Emphasis Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I-3 II Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-1 III Type of Problem Being Addressed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-1 General Description of the Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-1 Specific Attributes of the Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-3 Key References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III-5 IV Index of Strategies by Implementation Timeframe and Relative Cost . . . . . . . . . . . IV-1 V Description of Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V-1 Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V-1 Types of Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V-3 Related Strategies for Creating a Truly Comprehensive Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V-4 Objective 19.1 A--Reduce the Number, Duration, and Impact of Work Zones . . . . . . V-6 Objective 19.1 B--Improve Work Zone Traffic Control Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V-41 Objective 19.1 C--Improve Work Zone Design Practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V-67 Objective 19.1 D--Improve Driver Compliance with Work Zone Traffic Controls. . . V-79 Objective 19.1 E--Increase Knowledge and Awareness of Work Zones . . . . . . . . . . . V-96 Objective 19.1 F--Develop Procedures to Effectively Manage Work Zones . . . . . . . V-109 VI Guidance for Implementation of the AASHTO Strategic Highway Safety Plan . . VI-1 Outline for a Model Implementation Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VI-1 Purpose of the Model Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VI-2 Overview of the Model Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VI-2 Implementation Step 1: Identify and Define the Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VI-5 Implementation Step 2: Recruit Appropriate Participants for the Program . . . . . . . . . VI-9 Implementation Step 3: Establish Crash Reduction Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VI-11 Implementation Step 4: Develop Program Policies, Guidelines, and Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VI-12 Implementation Step 5: Develop Alternative Approaches to Addressing the Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VI-13 Implementation Step 6: Evaluate Alternatives and Select a Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VI-15 Implementation Step 7: Submit Recommendations for Action by Top Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VI-17 Implementation Step 8: Develop a Plan of Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VI-18 Implementation Step 9: Establish Foundations for Implementing the Program . . . . VI-20 Implementation Step 10: Carry Out the Action Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VI-21 Implementation Step 11: Assess and Transition the Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VI-22 VII Key References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VII-1 Appendixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-1

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Acknowledgments This volume of NCHRP Report 500 was developed under NCHRP Project 17-18(3), the product of which is a series of implementation guides addressing the emphasis areas of AASHTO's Strategic Highway Safety Plan. The project was managed by CH2M HILL, and the co-principal investigators were Kevin Slack of CH2M HILL and Ron Pfefer. Timothy Neuman of CH2M HILL served as the overall project director for the team. Kelly Hardy, also of CH2M HILL, served as a technical specialist on the development of the guides. The project team was organized around the specialized technical content contained in each guide, and the overall team included nationally recognized experts from many organizations. The following team of experts, selected on the basis of their knowledge of work zones, served as lead authors for the work zone guide: Nicholas D. Antonucci CH2M HILL Kelly K. Hardy CH2M HILL James E. Bryden Highway Safety Engineer Development of the volumes of NCHRP Report 500 used the resources and expertise of many professionals from around the country and overseas. Through research, workshops, and actual demonstration of the guides by agencies, the resulting documents represent best practices in each emphasis area. The project team is grateful to the following list of people and their agen- cies for supporting the project by providing material, participating in workshops and meetings, and providing input and comments during the development of the work zone guide: Broward County, Florida Missouri Department of Texas Transportation Lee Billingsley Transportation Institute Ronald Morris Gerald Ullman Deja Program Development Scott Stotlemeyer Larry Christensen Virginia Department of Ohio Department of Transportation Federal Highway Transportation Reginald Moseley Administration Dave Holstein Karen Croysdale Virginia Transportation Kerry Perrillo Oregon Department of Research Council Mike Robinson Transportation Michael Fontaine Tracy Scriba Anne Holder Wilbur Smith Associates Georgia Department of South Carolina Department Wilma Magyar Transportation of Transportation Norm Cressman John Gaither Wisconsin Department of Transportation Thomas Notbohm

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors would also like to thank the following people for their input and assistance in the development of this guide: Raghavan Srinivasan, University of North Carolina Highway Safety Research Center Kavita Boddu, CH2M HILL Taylor Fleet, CH2M HILL Mary Gute, CH2M HILL Tim Page, CH2M HILL