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Notes 1. R. E. Lipsey and I. B. Kravis, "Competitiveness and comparative advan- tage of U.S. multinationals, 1957-1983," Working Paper 2041 (National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, Mass., 1986~. 2. J. Irvine, B. Martin, T. Peacock, and R. Turner, "Charting the decline in British science," Nature 316 (6029) 587-590 (1985~. 3. This information derives from unpublished data from Computer Hori- zons, Inc. The data are based on the articles, notes, and reviews in more than 2,100 of the influential journals carried on the 1973 Corpse rate Tapes of the Science Citation Index of the Institute for Scientific Information. 4. National Science Board, Science Indicators: The 1985 Report, NSB 85-1 (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1985~. Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy, Scientific Com- munication and National Security (National Academy Press, Washing- ton, D.C., 1982~. 6. Cornrnittee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy, Balancing the National Interest: U.S. National Security Export Control and Global Economic Competition (National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1987~. 7. Embassy of France, French Advances in Sciences and Technology, vol. 1, no. 2 (1987~. 8. Office of Naval Research-London, European Science Notes, 41-1, 12-15 (1987~. 9. Business-Higher Education Forum, America's Competitive Challenge: The Needfor a National Response (Washington, D.C., 1983~. 10. Business-Higher Education Forum, The New Manufacturing: America's Race to Automate (Washington, D.C., 1984~. 45

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46 11. Business-Higher Education Forum, Northeast-Midwest Congressional Coalition, and Congressional Clearinghouse on the Future, An Action Agenda for American Competitiveness, (Washington, D.C., 19863. 12. P. Choate and 3. K. Linger, The High-Flex Society: Shaping America's Economic Future (Knopf, New York, 1986~. 13. National Academy of Engineering, The Competitive Status of U.S Industry An Overview (National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. 1985~. 14. National Research Council, Toward a New Era in U.S. Manufacturing (National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1986~. 15. President's Commission on Industrial Competitiveness, Gloloal Compe- tition: The New Reality (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1985~. 16. The President's Competitiveness Initiative, Fact Sheet (The White House, Washington, D.C., 1987~. 17. U.S. Congress, House, Targeting the Process of Innovation: An Agenda for U.S. Technological Leadership and Industrial Competitiveness (Steer- ing Committee of the Task Force on High Technology Initiatives, House Republican Research Committee, U.S. House of Representatives, 1984~. 18. U.S. Congress, Senate, Economic Competitiveness: Promoting Amer- ica's Living Standard (Senate Democratic Working Group on Economic Competitiveness, U.S. Senate, 1986~. 19. U.S. Congress, House, Science, Technology, and American Diplomacy, Committee on Science and Technology, The 6th Annual Report Submit- ted to the Congress by the President Pursuant to Section 503(b) of Title V of PL95-426. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1985~. 20. K. Ohmae, Triad Power: The Coming Shape of Global Competition (Free Press, New York, 1985~. 21. The discussion in this section draws in part on an unpublished paper by R. A. Frosch and B. R. Guile, "The Challenge of Globalization for Corporate Acquisition of Technology, available from the National Academy of Engineering Program Office. 22. The U.N. system potentially embraces all nations and virtually all in- ternational concerns and topics. NATO is a regional multilateral orga- nization directed primarily at the security of the Atlantic allies. OECD, an organization of some 30 advanced industrial noncommunist nations, is directed primarily at economic development.