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69 CHAPTER 4 Conclusions This chapter summarizes the major conclusions and rec- · Establishing and communicating a vision for the organi- ommendations of this study. The conclusions are organized zation that describes how technology will help achieve the into two major sections. The first section presents conclu- organization's goals and objectives. Agency leadership sions related to improving transit agency implementation (CEO/GM and board) should contribute to the develop- and operation of advanced technologies, including anticipa- ment of the vision and should thoroughly understand tion of high-potential emerging technologies. The second and support it. That support should include policies and section presents recommendations for disseminating the re- resource allocations necessary to realize the vision. Devel- sults of this study and for associated follow-up actions neces- opment of the vision should also meaningfully involve sary to ensure that the recommended agency practices gener- the range of agency stakeholders (e.g., riders/users, tax- ate their full benefit. payers, policy makers, employees, and media) and ade- quately reflect their needs and perspectives. Accompa- nying the vision should be a clear, sequential plan for 4.1 Improving Technology achieving the vision through specific investments and Implementations supporting actions. Six major conclusions of this study (not listed in order of · Having a champion throughout the planning, procure- importance) are the following: ment, and deployment of the technology who is pas- sionate about the vision, can articulate the vision in 1. There is an opportunity to move past the struggles in de- common language, and can discuss the vision anywhere ploying technology that have limited technology benefits at any time. for the transit industry. While advanced technology has · Recognizing the need for and embracing organizational been applied to public transit for more than 20 years, it has change, including understanding the stages of change, been done with varying degrees of success. Over the same being proactive in addressing and mitigating the reac- period of time, several guidance documents have provided tions of staff at each stage, empowering staff, and utiliz- information regarding the best practices associated with ing outside assistance when necessary. technology deployment. Nonetheless, agencies continue to · Understanding the long-term business case for, and have difficulties with technology deployment. These diffi- implications of, procuring and operating the technol- culties are not so much with the technology itself, as they ogy. This should include a realistic cost-benefit or are with associated deployment issues (e.g., organizational ROI analysis, even if it is only qualitative, and a formal, change). As a result of these continuing difficulties, transit post-deployment evaluation of observed benefits. agencies generally are not getting the full benefits of de- Not only are these elements necessary for successful tech- ployed technologies. nology implementation, some of them, such as a having a 2. Commitment, vision, organizational change, a cham- vision and a champion, describe fundamental conditions, pion, and a realistic business case are necessities for suc- prerequisites, which must be present before an agency can cessful deployment of technology. Those agencies that follow many recommended best practices. have been successful in deploying technology have made 3. Transit needs to follow the example of successful private- a significant commitment to the technology, but perhaps sector technology adopters by using more rigorous more importantly, to these four requirements: planning and implementation processes. Using EAP and