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CHAPTER 7 Transportation Market Analyses Using ACS Data Transportation planners at different types of agencies perform a wide range of transportation market analyses using census data and other sources. This Section describes how ACS is likely to be used for transportation market analyses. Section 7.1 defines transportation market analysis and describes why transportation planners conduct trans- portation market analyses. This section also provides some examples of uses of census data for this purpose. A more detailed list of specific uses is provided at the end of this section. Section 7.2 describes some of the benefits and limitations of shifting from census to ACS data related to transportation market analysis. Section 7.3 provides a case study example of transportation market analysis. The case study shows how to compute the index of dissimilarity (an application of envi- ronmental justice analysis) using ACS data and how the results compare to those using census data. 7.1 Transportation Market Analysis Transportation market analysis consists of a variety of methods used to support the analysis of transportation demand. Transportation planners have used decennial census data for many types of transportation market analyses, including studies on transit market, non-motorized commuting, and travel model market segmentation. Transportation market analysis is performed for different purposes. For example, transit mar- ket studies can be used to perform the following analyses:75 · Study of captive and choice transit riders to identify potential transit markets; · Performance evaluation, which is important for addressing Title VI federal requirements, environmental justice, and for identifying needs for extended transit service; · Demand projections and market evaluations; and · Route planning to improve current service and plan future service extensions. 7.1.1 Examples of Use This section provides some examples of presenting market analyses that are based on census data. Figure 7.1 shows transit usage by income and race.76 Figure 7.2 is a thematic map showing 75 R. Cervero, 1994, "Use of Census Data for Transit, Multimodal, and Small-Area Analyses." Transportation Research Board, Decennial Census Data for Transportation Planning, Conference Proceedings 4, Irvine, California, March 13-16, 1994. 76 TCRP Report 28: Transit Markets of the Future: The Challenge of Change, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1998. See http://gulliver.trb.org/publications/tcrp/tcrp_rpt_28-a.pdf. 117
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118 A Guidebook for Using American Community Survey Data for Transportation Planning Percent 25 Black Hispanic 20 Asian White 15 10 5 0 <5k 5-10k 10-15k 15-20k 20-25k 25-30k 30-40k 40-50k 50-60k 60-70k 70k+ Income Source: Unpublished tape readable data from the 1990 U.S. Census, 5% PUMS. Figure 7.1. Transit use to work in metropolitan areas, by race, ethnicity, and household income, 1990. Figure 7.2. Percent of persons age 65 years or older by county.